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Bratach Dubh: 
Collected 2 


Insurrectionary Writings 



Bratach Dubh: Collected 2 


Armed Struggle in Italy ’76-’78 
Bratach Dubh 
Anarchist Pamphlet 4 

Elephant Editions 
Ardent Press reprint 
Cover design by 1 882 distro 
2015 

Published by Aragorn Moser and Leona Benton 
Printed at “The Compound” 

1818 Carleton St. Berkeley, CA 94703-1908 



Contents 


Introduction to the 2nd Edition 1 

Introduction to the ist Edition 3 

Preface 8 

Our Role in the Present Conflict 11 

Diffused Urban Guerrilla 16 

Prison Revolts 34 

Prisons, Courts and the Legal Hierarchy 43 
Expropriation 49 

Victims of Repression 53 

Sweat Labour 65 

Politicians and Party Headquarters 68 

Trades Unions 86 

Factories and the Industrial Hierarchy 88 

State Offices 110 

Heroin Pushers 116 

Attacks Against the Police 122 

Restructuring Repression 129 

Anti-Institutional Movement, 

Revolutionary Violence, 

Armed Struggle— Some Reflections 131 

Towards the Generalisation of 
Armed Struggle 142 

On the Problem of Armed Struggle 154 

Forward Comrades! 158 




Introduction to the 2nd Edition 

The years covered by this pamphlet mark an important 
period for the whole of the movement against capital. 
It was at this time that the antagonist movement in 
Italy finally shed all its taboos concerning destruction, 
violence, and the use of arms against the class enemy. 
It became normal to respond to the humiliation and 
tyranny of capitalism with the arms considered to be 
the most effective for doing so, and acts of violence 
by bosses, police, and fascists found an immediate re- 
sponse both in the streets and in specific retaliatory 
actions against them. 

During this period a vast quantity of groups and 
struggle organisations emerged, convinced of the need 
to extend and heighten the armed struggle against 
capital. Many of these, in keeping with their lenin- 
ist convictions, reached the conclusion that capital- 
ism's final crisis had arrived, that victory was near and 
that it was time to fight the State on its own terms, 
in closed militaristic organisations (the armed wing 
of the proletariat) aimed at taking over and directing 
first the struggle, then the State. Their objectives were 
to recruit comrades into their organisations — the only 
ones entitled to carry out this historic task accord- 
ing to them — and to raise the level of the struggle to 
the ultimate moment of victory. When their analysis 
proved to be mistaken (that the end of capitalism was 



not imminent, instead it was going through a difficult 
phase of re-structuring), they began negotiating with 
the enemy to have their prisoners released, even at the 
cost of dissociating themselves from the struggle and 
from revolution itself. 

But there was another dimension present in the 
struggle at the end of the seventies, one consisting of 
autonomous actions carried out by affinity groups 
formed for the duration of the action itself. At the time 
when we first published this counter-information we 
did so in order to make known and extend the whole 
dimension of armed struggle, and for this reason we 
chose to limit our criticism of the forms that struggle 
took. In reprinting it we are doing so with another 
aim: that of contributing to the struggle's qualitative 
development. Now that the need for an armed attack 
against capital and the State has become widely accept- 
ed amongst comrades, it is time to work to extend the 
qualitative aspect that is spreading today using meth- 
ods including sabotage against the structures of capital. 
This sabotage, usually carried out by small groups of 
comrades who have come together on the basis of af- 
finity, is based on simple means that are available to 
anyone, and contains a strong element of creativity and 
joy in the knowledge that it is simple and effective to 
attack what is oppressing us directly, and that there is 
no need for endless documents of ideological justifica- 
tion for doing so. This does not mean that arms in the 


2 



traditional sense of the word are no longer relevant or 
should be considered something to be used at some 
time far off in the future. It is important to reflect on 
all these problems in order to develop and strengthen 
an effective and intelligent revolutionary perspective. 

Introduction to the ist Edition 

The key to the future is rebellion. As the multination- 
als spread their hold throughout the world, changing 
their hosts as the demands of (overall) profit direct 
them, the trade unions are showing themselves to be 
obsolete as organisations of struggle, and actually di- 
rect participants in capitalism's plan of restructuring. 
The advanced democratic State is ready to patron- 
ise inquests in any sphere: prison reform, ecologi- 
cal problems, debates on abortion, etc., in order to 
handle dissent and render it a manageable dynamic 
within the global project of social control, and some 
of the modern European States have shown them- 
selves to be more astute in this prevision than others. 

We would say that Italy, although similar to Brit- 
ain at an economic level where it shares its place as 
the weakest of the advanced industrialised countries, 
has less sophisticated means at its disposal with which 
to control the growing strata of those pushed to the 
margins of the process of production. In other words, 
it is not that Italy is a country in a more acute state of 



economic crisis than Britain, nor that, because here 
in Britain we do not read daily reports in our news- 
papers about the burning of factory manager's cars, or 
the laming of journalists, that a situation of revolt at 
mass level does not also exist. 

It is not the politicised minority who create re- 
volt, but the existence of exploitation. What we can 
say is that there is not a clearly politicised minor- 
ity in Britain who, drawing their direction from the 
mass, are seeking to give it a wider perspective, that of 
generalised rebellion. Many factors come into play in 
this situation in our opinion, not least the one already 
mentioned: the State's capacity to recuperate margin- 
al groups and give them a ‘socially fulfilling’ task such 
as involvement in adventure playgrounds, local hous- 
ing, organised squatting projects, etc., allowing them a 
certain autonomy of movement, and very little excess 
energy for such activities as revolution. 

But we cannot blame the State for everything. 
We feel there exists a certain aristocratic tendency 
within the movement in Britain that denies the im- 
portance of illegal action at grass roots level, and still 
persists in seeing rebellion in terms of the workers' 
movement. To this extent we feel the following in- 
formation, however incomplete, is a contribution to 
forming a more realistic vision of where the struggle 
lies today. 


4 



The chronology that follows is an important ele- 
ment of counter-information concerning the situa- 
tion of struggle in Italy. We do not claim this to be 
a fully representative picture. Many acts of rebellion 
never reach the press either because they are sup- 
pressed or because, taken on their individual merit 
they are too insignificant, as in the case of absentee- 
ism, individual sabotage, and self-appropriation of 
goods. And it is in these areas more and more that 
the minority groups are finding the message that an 
intensification of the struggle is necessary. We hope, 
however, that something will emerge from this vast 
collection of data: that armed struggle in Italy today 
does not lie in the hands of a few professional mili- 
tants, but that it is a way of being, a way of everyday 
life for hundreds of thousands of people, and that area 
is forever widening its field of attack. 

The young people who have been pushed to the 
margins of Italian capitalism are creating their own 
theory with their actions. They have realised not 
only that there is nothing for them within the pres- 
ent structure, but also that they want nothing from it. 
They want to destroy it in every form it presents itself, 
and this involves not only institutions, but the people 
who make them function as such. Similar attitudes 
are also re-emerging among the employed workers 
within the context of the factory, following a period 



of relative stasis since the struggles of 1973. The result 
of this has been to create a situation of ideological 
crisis within the organised Left. On the one hand, the 
mass refusal of the system has not left the retrograde 
Left out of their radical critique; on the other these 
same groups are finding themselves confronted with a 
living situation of rebellion, leaving their abstract the- 
ories of economic cycles in the cold. They are faced 
with the pertinent question:What are we going to do? 
Unfortunately in many cases the answer has been one 
that has been found in the past by groups of a Stalinist 
character: that of policing the spontaneous movement. 

But it is not possible to draw a simple line of de- 
marcation between ‘authoritarian’ groups that develop 
in such and such a way, and ‘libertarian’ groups that 
automatically find the truth of the moment in the 
mass struggle. Any group or tendency that considers 
itself'carrier of truth’, and tries to impose its ideology 
on the situation, automatically takes the side of the 
counter-revolution, no matter how sweet the sound 
of their label is to our ears. This is not to say that such 
comrades are acting in bad faith. There is an almost 
traditional lack of clarity on certain problems within 
the anarchist movement, which carries many to jump 
to the (ideological) defence of tendencies which they 
know only through historical eulogy and have never 
put into practice in the reality in which they are living. 


6 



When the reality of the moment is that of re- 
bellion at mass level, this ignorance and adhesion to 
to old models becomes particularly dangerous, as it 
can lead to trying to put a brake on the real move- 
ment, and to a condemnation of comrades who 
are working in the practical field of clarification. 
Clarity on the problem of armed intervention in 
the class struggle is therefore of primary importance. 
First, what exactly do we mean by the term ‘armed 
struggle’? Secondly, when is this form of intervention 
justifiable? Thirdly, what organisational form should 
this intervention take? 

These are all questions which the anarchist move- 
ment in Italy has been forced to face in recent years, 
some groups more willingly than others. The theo- 
retical articles that accompany the following chronol- 
ogy are therefore also a fruit of the present historical 
situation, and represent an attempt to go ahead to- 
wards what we feel is a direction where anarchists can 
be present in the struggle today. 

Clearly what we have been able to portray in the 
following selection of data is limited and at times dis- 
ordered. But one of the prime elements of rebellion 
is disorder. So let us begin to be wary of the order 
within our ranks, and look to the disorder around us. 

Jean Weir 

1979 



Preface 

In 1960 in Italy the favourable economic period 
comes to an end, and clashes begin in the streets. The 
government, presided over by the Christian Demo- 
crat Tambroni, tries to repress these clashes, but is de- 
feated. Many demonstrators are killed by police in 
Genoa, Rome, Modena, Reggio Emilia, and Catania. 
In 1963 the Socialists enter the government. Re- 
pression resumes. The trades unions begin to ne- 
gotiate with the bosses. They gradually cease to 
represent the workers. In the Hot Autumn of 1 969 
the workers in the factories begin to organise au- 
tonomously, in the form of wildcat strikes, factory 
occupations, etc., and this situation has lasted, with 
varying periods of flux and reflux, to the present day. 
A number of Marxist-Leninist organisations are born, 
for example Servire il Popolo. The anarchist move- 
ment tries to re-organise through the FAI (Italian An- 
archist Federation). 

1968 sees a general relaunching of political or- 
ganisations following the struggles of May in France. 
In Italy it is the anarchists that show the greatest de- 
velopment, but the movement is full of contradic- 
tions and disillusions most of those who approach 
their organisations. 

In 1969 Lotta Continua is born, and immedi- 
ately after, Potere Operaio. It is the year of the piazza 


8 



Fontana massacres. The movement finds unity in the 
defence of the anarchist comrades who were framed 
and arrested. 

In 1970 there is a revolt of the population of 
Reggio Calabria, but the fascists succeed in taking 
over the struggle due to the inefficiency of the com- 
rades' political organisations. 1969 sees the beginning 
of the revolts in the prisons, which continue until 
1972. They re-emerge in 1973 and give life to the 
movement of imprisoned militants. 

The first organisations to become a point of ref- 
erence for clandestine struggle are born. Around 1970 
the Gruppi di Azione Proletaria (GAP) are formed 
in Genoa. Potere Operaio supports them but Lotta 
Continua condemns them. It is here that the degen- 
eration of the latter begins, ending up in a squalid 
gauchisme, to disappear completely as a movement 
shortly afterwards leaving only a tiny group around 
their daily paper. 

During the same period Colletdvo Metropoli- 
tano developed alongside the original Brigate Rosse 
(Red Brigades, of a Stalinist matrix, tinted with dif- 
ferent shades of Leninism): NAP ( Nuclei Armati Pro- 
letari) or Armed Proletarian Cells; Prima Linea or 
Front Line; Azione Rivoluzionaria or Revolutionary 
Action; Nuclei Conibattenti Comunisti or Communist 
Combattent Cells, etc. These groups have in turn in- 
fluenced the internal structure of the Red Brigades 



which, as far as one can understand from their latest 
strategic document, would now seem to be that of 
Leninist democratic centralism, i.e. groups that work 
separately, but in contact in the strategic sense. Each 
group elaborates its own analyses and plans of action, 
then submits them to the strategic command who 
study them and return them with relative observa- 
tions. Individual groups can diverge from the strate- 
gic command and develop analyses and actions that 
might not have their approval. It is conceivable that 
the intensification of repression will force the Red 
Brigades to reconsider this structure and decide in 
favour of the closed model of the Stalinist type (sup- 
ported by the old guard), or the more open model 
based on territorial evaluations. 

It is the latter model that is now being applied by 
other groups, with varying levels of conviction and 
success. This breaking away from the rigid model of 
the Red Brigades can be seen in the actions of the 
NAP (and in their documents on theory and organ- 
isations), and in more recent analyses produced by 
the combatant organisation Prima Linea. Here the 
Leninism is more diluted and the autonomy of in- 
dividual groups (and therefore security on a military 
level) appears to be greater. 

The combatant organisation Azione Rivoluzion- 
aria has attempted to develop theory and organisation 
in a libertarian direction, and has often made explicit 
10 



references to anarchism. 

Alongside this organisation, which is working in 
Italian territory in a more or less efficient and coordi- 
nated way, there exists an infinity of small groups and 
individual militants who, without referring to any 
specific organisation and often using made up names, 
have developed a phenomenon of constant guerrilla 
activity, constituting a very interesting point of refer- 
ence for the development of the armed confrontation 
in Italy. 

The chronology that follows has been translated 
from the bimonthly review Anarchismo, and covers 
the period from March 1976 to November 1978. 

Our Role i n the Present Conflict 

We see the present historical situation as one that 
is characterised by a state of increasing illegality in 
which vast strata of society find themselves. Millions 
of unemployed young people and those on the mar- 
gins of society are having to use what ever means 
are available in order to survive: thousands of women 
are obliged to have back street abortions; workers 
are practicing individual forms of sabotage, absentee- 
ism and production boycotts; there are those in the 
system's concentration camps (special prisons, psy- 
chiatric hospitals etc.) who are rebelling; proletarian 
squatters have not paid rent for years; ethnic com- 
munities are reaffirming their identities; ‘hooligans’ 
our role in the present conflict 



are crowding metropolitan ghettos; and many others. 
The very fact that all these exploited are imposing 
their presence as living contradictions in the midst 
of capitalism's process of totalitarian transformation, 
constitutes an inadmissible form of illegality for the 
State. The State's response is to eliminate this in any 
way possible, using a whole arsenal of brutal repres- 
sive instruments in the attempt. 

We see our task as that of attempting to trans- 
form this mass illegalitarianism into a situation of 
generalised rebellion that the State would no longer 
be able to absorb into the dialectic claiming better 
conditions/reform/control. There is only one way to 
do this: to demonstrate with actions that each one of 
us has an enemy that is identifiable in precise struc- 
tures and personages, and that this enemy is not in- 
vulnerable. We must demonstrate through action that 
individual revolt can and must transform itself into 
collective insurrection, the only one capable of really 
freeing us from oppression. It now seems clear to us 
that this means going beyond the limiting logic of 
defense against State violence. It is instinctive for any- 
one who is subjected to a system of exploitation that 
tries to bend them to its will to defend themselves, 
and in fact everyone is trying to do so in one way or 
another. There are those who make make themselves 
the knowing collaborators of power, or who delegate 
this defense to others more capable. 

12 



We, who consider ourselves conscious revolu- 
tionaries, cannot limit ourselves to this. We must and 
will attack the State. Moreover, we are not attacking 
it to take possession of it in turn, but to destroy it in 
all its forms and realisations. 

The creative essence of anarchism is present in 
this work of destruction: in striking and eliminating 
its hierarchical mechanisms right away, we are at the 
same time creating the premise for the libertarian 
management of society. We are not proposing a pre- 
conceived model of society, the justice of which we 
want to convince others, but want to put each person 
in the condition of managing his or her own actions 
directly, free the impositions of power and its servants. 

We maintain that some instruments of struggle 
have been acquired not only and not so much by 
certain sectors of the revolutionary movement, but 
by the whole proletarian movement, which cannot in 
any way be reduced to one or more organisation or 
set of initials. We think that the instruments we have 
at our disposition should be addressed to this situa- 
tion of struggle. 

At this point attention should be paid not to ex- 
change the instrument with the aim to be attained. 
We must not let armed and illegal practice in struggle 
become an end in itself and valid as such, therefore 
unchangeable, infallible, self-sufficient and omnipo- 
tent. ...The practice of violent attack against the State 
ourroleinthe present conflict 



that we are interested in developing is identifiable not 
only and not so much with the shooting in the legs of 
notorious Christian Democrats, but must permeate 
every aspect of our struggle, every field of interven- 
tion. For our attack to be effective we must be able to 
identify the structures and representatives of power in 
every city, factory, school, quarter, barracks, institution, 
right to the relationships that exist among ourselves, 
and strike them with all the range of instruments and 
arms that our fantasy suggests. 

This should prevent us from falling into Leninist- 
type mystification where, directing the attack towards 
a mythical heart of the State, they are actually prepar- 
ing for the conquest of this heart in order to take it 
over, leaving all the old capillaries intact and spread 
throughout the whole country. Our task is also to 
deny the absurd equation (so convenient to the State) 
armed struggle equals clandestinity, which would lead 
us in to accepting the role of professionals of armed 
struggle and the reduction of our activity and our 
very lives to the purely military aspect of struggle. 

As anarchists our efforts should, on the contrary, 
demonstrate that it is possible to go beyond these di- 
visions into roles, against the formation of an elite of 
experts, and the false alternative (not by chance one 
that is desired and encouraged by the State) between 
creative people and pistoleros. 


14 



Diffused Urban Guerrilla 

1976 February 

23 Milan: A Mass in Defence of Life is celebrated in 
the Duomo cathedral, attended by representatives of 
all the strata who are against abortion and the spread- 
ing of communism, from Nazi-fascists to the silent 
majority. The police attack a group of comrades try- 
ing to reach the cathedral. During the clash, eight 
luxury cars and the office of an Iranian airline com- 
pany are set fire to. 

March 

12 Naples: The trial of the NAP members who re- 
belled in prison on the 3rd is due to take place. Hun- 
dreds of proletarians go to show their solidarity with 
the rebels. Violent clashes with the police develop. 
Three arrests are made. 

13 Rome: While Lotta Continua and Avanguardia 
Operaia comrades are distributing leaflets outside a 
school concerning the wounding of a LC comrade 
by an MSI member, they are shot at by plain-clothes 
police. One comrade is wounded, nine are arrested. 

13 Rozzano: At the Knipping engineering factory, 
noted for its antiworker reprisals and for enforcing 
a 60/70-hour week, about sixty workers break in 
through the gates, destroy adding machines, typewrit- 
ers, windowpanes and machinery.The police arrive in 
force and thirteen workers are held. 


diffused urban guerrilla 



14 Rome: About twenty comrades come out in protest 
against the regime in Spain, which recently shot down 
seven proletarians in the street. They throw molotovs 
against the Spanish Embassy. Three policemen shoot 
indiscriminately into the group of young people run- 
ning away, killing one of them, Luigi De Angelis. 

17 Turin: Production is blocked all over Italy follow- 
ing sabotage at the FIAT factory in Turin. In Pomi- 
gliano the workers of Alfa Romeo and Aeritalia block 
the motorway. In Pozzuoli the workers of the Sofer, 
Olivetti and Icon paralyse the area. Similar events take 
place in Milan where factories are deserted, roads 
blocked, town halls besieged.There are actions also in 
Pordenone, Genoa, Bologna, Macerata, Bergamo, and 
Ivrea.The unions announce the preparation of a con- 
trolled strike in an attempt to recuperate the spon- 
taneous rebellion. Everything now depends on the 
critical capacity of the workers. Those who insulted 
the union leaders, deriding their agreements with the 
entrepreneurs, and are refusing to sacrifice themselves 
“for the good of the nation,” must discover that they 
cannot obtain much within the framework of the ex- 
isting society, but that they can take all, transforming 
the bases themselves. The bosses can't pay more, but 
they can disappear. 

18 Padova: Police brutally attack students in the Uni- 
versity refectory where they were staging a sit-in. 
They break in without warning, shooting tear gas. 

16 



Later in the day police shoot into a crowd outside 
the university building, wounding five people. 

25 General Strike. Turin, Pavia, Varese, Novara Ge- 
noa, Padova, Florence, Naples, and Potenza — clashes 
in front of the Town Halls. Road and rail blocks in 
Trento, Massa, Bari, and Treviso. 

26 Milan: Radical critique turns into practice. A pop 
concert put on by Socialists in the Paladino find out 
that warnings that such events would not be tolerated 
were serious. Hundreds of comrades, conscious that 
capitalism isn’t only in the factories, governments and 
police stations, but is in all the situations of our daily 
lives, the whole of our social existence, wreck the 
auditorium and break up the concert. 

30 Naples: Unemployed workers, tired of demonstra- 
tions and broken promises, decide to make themselves 
heard. They attack the labour exchange and the central 
railway station, where they damage first class carriages. 
They build barricades in the city centre, take over buses 
and cars, and resist police onslaughts for over four hours. 
Offices and shops are devastated. 29 arrests are made. 
May 

/ Rome: A march organised by Autonomia Operaia is 
attacked by the police. Comrades defend themselves 
with stones and molotovs. Many are wounded. Twen- 
ty four arrests. 

27 Treviso: Violent clashes break out between coun- 
ter-demonstrators and police at an MSI meeting. Six 
diffused urban guerrilla 



comrades are arrested. 

3 l Florence: 1 1 comrades are arrested during clash- 
es with the police at a meeting held by MSI leader 
Almirante. 

June 

28 Rome: Violent clashes when a huge crowd breaks 
away from the festival organised by Proletari- 
ate Giovanile (proletarian youth) in Parco Lambro. 
Thousands of autonomists refuse to be controlled by 
the politicos who wanted to impose their suprema- 
cy on participants at the festival, and violent clashes 
develop with the police. Those who are used to the 
idea of revolution as a point of general discussion, the 
well-behaved revolution, cannot understand that the 
proletarian revolution is disordered, wild, desecrating. 

July 

15 Milan: Judges condone the sacking of four workers 
for their political ideas at their appeal trial. The cara- 
binieri reply to the public’s manifestation of anger by 
attacking them, wounding many. 

29 Ravenna: A festival organised by Federazione 
Giovanile Comunista Italiana is broken up. Many 
comrades, irritated by high prices, the squalid spec- 
tacle, the barbed wire, and the searches by CP activists, 
begin to protest nearby. Police fire into them, killing a 
comrade. Groups of comrades raise barricades, uproot 
road signs, plunder shops, and attack the town hall 
and the police headquarters. 

18 



September 

13 Naples: A group of unemployed workers is attacked 
by police, who wound 30 and make numerous arrests. 

October 

8 A rese: Wildcat strike at Alfa Romeo factory against 
the government’s proposed tax increases and rise in 
cost of petrol. FIAT-OM workers block traffic in the 
main street. Other spontaneous actions take place in 
all the major towns and cities. The trade union bu- 
reaucrats are obliged to call a general strike. 

November 

30 Turin: 23 comrades are arrested following an attack 
on Right wing catholic organisation Comunione e 
Liberazione premises. 

December 

7 Milan: The city has been in a state of siege since the 
early hours of the morning, with thousands of police 
and carabinieri, as comrades plan to sabotage the first 
night of the Scala. Clashes go on for hours all over 
the centre of the city. Shops are devastated, buses and 
cars set fire to and barricades erected. 33 arrests. Two 
comrades are seriously wounded. 

20 Cagliari: Over a thousand people demonstrate in 
protest at the killing of Wilson Spiga, aged 17. The 
boy had gone through red traffic lights and was shot 
by a plain-clothes policeman. 


diffused urban guerrilla 



1977 January 

/ 4 Rome: The bookshop Maraldi is set fire to during 
a demonstration in protest against the fascist assembly 
in the city. Molotovs are also thrown against a Chris- 
tian Democrat premises. 

30 Naples: Police provoke comrades leaving a concert. 
Thirty seven people are attacked, beaten up and ar- 
rested for no reason other than that they are left-wing 
militants. 

February 

2 Rome: A protest march against the killing of com- 
rade Bellachioma by a fascist is attacked by machine 
gun fire. The first to fire were two plain-clothes po- 
licemen; others follow their example, wounding two 
people. 

2 Turin: The fascist bookshop Fogola and a meeting 
place for fascists and heroin pushers, are set on fire. 

3 Pisa: Shop belonging to a notorious fascist is 
wrecked. Police intervene, making one arrest. 

16 all over Italy: Universities are occupied. The oc- 
cupations, which are related to the Malfatti reform, 
evolve into a general critique of all forms of alien- 
ation. They become the refusal of authority, bureau- 
crats, parties and trade unions. 

18 Rome: Trade union leader (CGIL) Lama tries to 
hold a meeting in the occupied University. He and 
his gorillas are chased away by thousands of students 
who destroy the platform he is standing on. The CP 
20 



calls for police intervention against students who 
wreck the University before leaving it in the hands of 
the forces of order. 

March 

4 Rome: Carabinieri in the corridors of the High Court 
are attacked by the public following the sentencing of 
Fabrizio Panzieri to nine years’ imprisonment for the 
events that led to the death of the fascist Mantakas. 
Many comrades are wounded by batons and tear gas. 

5 Rome: Twenty thousand gather in protest against 
Panzieri’s sentence. After a moment of confusion they 
defend themselves, keeping ahead of the police for 
hours. Cars and buses are used as barricades. Seven 
comrades are arrested. 

8 Palermo: Police attack a group of comrades who de- 
cided to reduce the ticket prices at a concert. Heavy 
clashes follow during which shots are fired into the 
crowd by police. 

1 1 Bologna: Thousands of comrades come out into the 
streets following the killing of Lotta Continua com- 
rade, Franco Lo Russo, at the university. A Christian 
Democrat bookshop is set on fire, shops are plundered, 
the Town Hall is attacked and the railway station is oc- 
cupied. The Communist Party mayor calls in the army. 

12 Rome, Bologna, Turin, Padova, Lecce, Messina, etc.: 
Armed comrades clash with police and attack party 
buildings and shops. The rage of thousands spreads 
through the streets, ignited by the assassination of 
diffused urban guerrilla 



Franco Lo Russo and Panzieri’s prison sentence, 
growing emargination and the squalid games of pow- 
er. Armouries are plundered and pistols and guns dis- 
tributed among demonstrators in Rome and Bologna. 
Fascist lairs, cars, buses, shops, restaurants, and offices 
go up in flames. 

1 8 Milan: Armed comrades break away from a march 
and enter the headquarters of the Marelli company. 
They take the wallets containing identity cards etc. 
from those present and set fire to the building. Ten 
minutes later more offices are attacked. At midday a 
commando take away pistols and ammunition from an 
armoury. At 1 pm the office of a firm noted for its ex- 
ploitation of young people is attacked with molotovs. 

April 

/ Venice: Violent clashes between police and demon- 
strators trying to get into the Melibran theatre with 
self-reduced tickets. 

21 Rome: Battle at the University between hundreds 
of comrades and police divisions. The autonomists 
respond with arms. One policeman is killed, another 
wounded. 

May 

14 Milan: In a clash between autonomists and police 
during a demonstration, a carabinieri sergeant is shot 
in the forehead and dies a few days later. 

1 9 Mestre: A group frees two feminists arrested by the 
police after smashing the window of a cinema to tear 

22 



down a poster advertising a strip-tease show. 

19 Genoa, Rome, etc.: Despite the fact that the govern- 
ment has gone so far as to mobilise not only thou- 
sands of police, special squadrons and carabinieri, but 
has also armed park attendants and forestry guards, 
demonstrations continue to take place in many cities. 
In Rome thousands of students participate in an as- 
sembly at the University, which is surrounded by the 
army. In Milan two bombs go off in an underground 
terminus, preventing trains from operating.The action 
s claimed by Prima Linea who write: the sabotage in 
the underground on this working day and therefore day of 
profit for the bosses, is linked to other forms of mass illegality. 
In Padova the University is crowded with comrades 
who give battle to the forces of order. Fifteen cars 
are burned, another dozen are overturned and used as 
barricades, and tanks are attacked with molotovs. In 
Genoa hundreds of young people occupy the streets 
and side streets of the city centre, have a pitched battle 
with the police, then retire into their bases. 

June 

10 Turin: While discussions with the unions con- 
tinue, workers at the FIAT-Mirafiori get tired of 
waiting and damage an office building, hold a dem- 
onstration and walk out in short, disordered strikes. 
30 Syracuse: Twenty five workers are charged with 
having blocked the road and the railway station in 
February following the poisoning of eighteen men 
diffused urban guerrilla 



and women at the gates of the I SAB factory. 

July 

5 Rome: About a hundred shantytown dwellers come 
out to demonstrate about their living conditions 
in front of a municipal building where a session of 
councillors is taking place. They are attacked by po- 
lice and two demonstrators are arrested. 

10 Melilli: A few dozen men, women, and children 
occupy the Town Hall. They want to be transferred 
to an area safely away from the poisonous discharge 
from industrial establishments around Syracuse. 

15 Rome: Following a denunciation by Communist 
Party and Comunione e Liberazione members 400 
police raid a students’ residence. The whole place is 
turned over in true Gestapo fashion. Seven students 
end up in prison. 

Proletarians block the access to their area in protest 
against police raids where, under pretext of looking 
for a machine gun police had manhandled women 
and children. This kind of experience is not new to 
the area. Needless to say, no machine gun was found. 

2 / Milan: Two thousand paper mill workers threat- 
ened with redundancy erect roadblocks on the route 
to the airport. They also try to invade the runways 
but are prevented by police. 

23 Cagliari: The Communist mayor and two Social- 
ist Party officials are locked inside the town hall by 
one hundred fifty miners and sympathisers who have 

24 



not received social security payments for the past 
fifty months, and because they have been fighting in 
vain for the past year to have vital repairs done to the 
mine where they work. 

24 Ravenna: Workers of the Maraldi group who have 
not been paid for months block the port with a steel 
hull. In Varese more than three hundred workers of 
the Siai Marchetti block the railway station. At the 
same time another four hundred workers block the 
Sempione road in two places. 

29 Naples: One hundred forty dockers who have 
been laid off for the past two months put lorries in 
front of the gates thereby blocking port activity. 

In Reggio Calabria four hundred fifty workers of the 
Andreae Knitwear company who have been laid off 
for months occupy the railway station for a number 
of hours. 

September 

7 Naples: Demonstrations of ESSO workers climb on 
to the roof of a depot and threaten to set fire to the 
tank. In Milan about a hundred families organised in 
a squatters’ committee have been occupying the first 
nine floors of the housing office for the past five days. 
23 Naples: About 80 workers at the OMSA stocking 
factory occupy the railway lines for hours at a point 
where express trains have to pass. The protest is about 
the proposed closure of the factory. 

29 Bolzano: The inhabitants of S. Giacomo area oc- 
diffused urban guerrilla 



cupy one of the main streets of the city and hold it for 
four hours. The reason is that the street is dangerous 
for children, and recently four have been injured. In 
Florence, students, employed and unemployed work- 
ers squat three disused hotels. The action is directed 
against high rents and towards “having a house one 
can live in with dignity.” 

30 Milan: During the night, news of the assassination 
ofWalter Rossi reaches Milan. Huge demonstrations 
take place throughout the night, and a number of cars 
in the city are damaged. 

October 

i Rome: Protests about the assassination of Rossi. A 
large spontaneous demonstration assembles. Three 
fascist lairs are burned. Cars and buses are used to 
block roads. Police repeatedly storm demonstrators 
with tear gas. In Bologna incidents break out during 
a march. A bar is burned and many cars are destroyed. 
A car showroom is set fire to during the night. In 
Florence the hotel occupation widens its perspec- 
tive with the protest against the Rossi assassination. 
Some shops are damaged. In Catanzaro there are 
clashes between comrades and fascists, and against the 
police. In Brescia there are demonstrations with at- 
tacks on various symbols of power. A Luisa Spagnola 
shop is burned. In Padova two bars are burned and 
a bank is attacked. In Varese demonstration with mo- 
lotovs against chosen targets. In Verona clashes with 
26 



the police, molotovs against shops. In Milan a large 
demonstration, molotovs against a church and a cafe 
frequented by fascists. 

3 Rome: Violent clashes with police etc. During the 
funeral of Walter Rossi, comrades rebel against the 
atmosphere of official mourning in the presence of 
representatives of the city authorities, and at a point 
where one of the fascist lairs is situated, the funeral be- 
comes a demonstration. There are immediate clashes 
with the carabinieri. A fascist meeting place is set fire 
to, as is an MSI party premises, a police car and a lorry. 
2 Milan : Protest against rise in bus fares. A bus is taken 
over by comrades and covered in slogans. It is then 
used to lead the demo against fares. 

9 Milan: Anarchist comrades occupy an underground 
railway station, locking the gates and letting passen- 
gers in free. Slogans are written on the walls and leaf- 
lets distributed against price increases and demanding 
a free service. 

1 4 Rome: During an anti-fascist demonstration a large 
part of the march breaks away and attacks some of 
the key points of repression with molotovs. Shops are 
plundered and the Christian Democrat premises at- 
tacked. Some comrades picked up by the police are 
freed by others. Police find one hundred eighty seven 
abandoned molotov cocktails. 

17 Milan: Police attack a demonstration against fares 
increases. The result: some wounded, hundreds of 
diffused urban guerrilla 



millions of lire damage to ATM (transport company) 
property cars, ticket machines, control lines, signals. 

18 Rome: A demonstration heads for the Bonn Em- 
bassy after the Stammheim and Mogadishu massacres. 
Police block the road, so demonstrators go to the 
American Embassy instead. Police storm the march 
and two comrades are wounded. 

20 Rome: Protests continue against Stammheim and 
Mogadishu. A proposed demonstration to the Ger- 
man consulate is averted by all the forces of power in 
the city. Violent clashes with police develop. Twen- 
ty comrades are arrested and four policemen are 
wounded. 

21 Milan: Barricades are erected in the city against 
police. 

27 Palermo: Comrades block roads in the city centre. 
In Oristano the whole village ofSamugneo is blocked 
by its 4,000 inhabitants because it lacks drains, water 
supply, roads, etc. 

29 Milan: ATM trams and kiosks attacked in vari- 
ous underground stations in the continuing struggle 
against fares increases. 

November 

7 Vercelli: The workers ofMontefibre occupy and hold 
the railway station for three hours in protest against 
redundancies and the closing of numerous companies 
in the area. 

1 1 Bologna: German Christian Democrat Gunter 

28 



Muller and English Labour minister Thomas Urwin 
come to present the Flag of Honour of the Coun- 
cil of Europe to Andreotti in recognition of the de- 
velopment of European relations. Comrades occupy 
the Faculty of Architecture — they want to ask Muller 
about the killings at Stammheim; they want two 
comrades (arrested in Bologna in March) to be freed. 
Patrols of comrades cover the city. Clashes break out 
with police. 

/ / Milan: Clashes between comrades and police in 
the Sempione area during a protest march against the 
molotoving of a comrade’s house the night before. 
Police fire pistol shots and teargas. Comrades retaliate 
with molotovs, spanners, stones, catapults and any- 
thing else they can find. 

12 Rome: In spite of the ban on demonstrations com- 
rades begin to gather for the march in protest against 
the closing of the autonomous groups’ premises. 
More than four hours’ battle with the police ensue. 
Twenty arrests are made. In Milan clashes break out 
for the same reason and a large group break into the 
police office at one of the railway stations. 

12 Lecce: Clashes between comrades and police. One 
comrade is seriously injured in the legs. 

15 National Strike: In Padova, Turin, Trento, Bologna, 
Bari, clashes between police helped by CGIL gorillas, 
and comrades who criticise the conservative and re- 
pressive role of the unions in every way. The new and 
diffused urban guerrilla 



old police attack the comrades, who respond with 
stones and molotovs. 

16 Genoa: Inhabitants of the inland region hit by 
flooding the previous year are enraged by the govern- 
ment’s failure to provide aid. They occupy and block 
the Genoa/ Alessandria motorway. 

18 Milan: The workers of Unidal block a main bou- 
levard in protest against the company’s plan to make 
5,000 workers redundant. 

29 Bari: Demonstrations and clashes with police in 
protest against the killing of young comrade Petrone 
the previous day. The Cisnal premises are assailed and 
destroyed. A TV cameramen films police firing wildly 
and one down on his knees taking careful aim. Other 
incidents in Bologna, Catania, L’Aquila, and Milan. 

December 

8 Cagliari: Demonstration about the crisis situation. 
Clashes with police. Molotovs/tear gas. 

8 Algliero: Spontaneous demonstration in protest 
against the police killing a 16 year old boy caught 
stealing a pair of shoes. Clashes with police. Many 
shop windows are smashed. 

12 Rome: In spite of a ban, a demonstration takes place 
to commemorate the Piazza Fontana massacre (bomb 
placed by fascists and the Italian secret services in the 
Banca dell’Agricoltura in Milan in 1969 killing 27 peo- 
ple, which was used to strike the anarchist movement). 
Molotovs against FIAT dealers, and the SIP. Many cars 

30 



are burned, windows and traffic lights smashed. 

1 6 Genoa: During clashes in the city centre between 
police and demonstrators, premises of Catholic As- 
sociation are attacked. 

17 Milan: During an anti-fascist demonstration many 
comrades manage to enter the headquarters of the 
Italian Monarchist Association, and cause damage of 
more than 50 million lire. 

1 978 January 

3,000 workers left without wages or holiday pay by a 
contracting firm organise a series of road blocks and 
then go to the company building where they cause 
damage of over 200 million lire. 

30 Rome: Police bar a protest demonstration against 
the exile of comrades to island prisons. All the same, 
comrades come out into the streets and the morning is 
spent fighting off the police. Seventy nine people are 
arrested and later released. Seven policemen wounded. 
February 

10 Rome: Violent clashes develop when police try to 
break up a demonstration against plans to exile com- 
rades. 1 4 arrests are made. 

6 Cagliari: Hard clashes at the RAI (television com- 
pany) between police and demonstrators protesting 
against the arrest of six comrades who lived in the 
area. They are accused of belonging to an armed or- 
ganisation, 
diffused urban guerrilla 



9 Cagliari: During the demonstration called by the trade 
unions against redundancies at the Ruminaca company, 
groups of demonstrators smash shop windows and the 
RAI-TV van where the incidents were being filmed. 

18 Turin: Groups of ‘self-reducing' passengers attack 
25 AMT carriages and destroy ticket machines. 

19 Tivoli: A CP meeting is disrupted by groups of 
comrades protesting against the decision to exile rev- 
olutionary militants. 

25 Rome: During a demonstration for the Political 

6 (struggle in the secondary schools against exami- 
nations, where pupils demand the automatic passage 
to high school, which normally requires a minimum 
60% pass), a Christian Democrat and MSI premises 
are attacked with molotovs. Thirty two comrades are 
arrested. Many attacks on Christian Democrat prem- 
ises and police stations take place during the night. 

March 

7 Naples: A demonstration of unemployed workers 
paralyses the eastern part of the city. In the evening 
sellers of contraband goods come out into the streets 
with the slogan ‘if you want to stop smuggling, you’ll 
have to give us jobs’. 

2 1 Cagliari: Workers at the firm Selpa, in struggle for 
the past four years to save their jobs, occupy the villa 
belonging to two SIR directors for four hours. 

22 Milan: D uring the funeral of Fausto and Lorenzo 
(see “Victims of Repression”), anarchist comrades try 
32 



to attack the premises of trade union delegates and 
fights break out with the confederal macebearers bar- 
ricaded inside. 

April 

/ 8 Cosenza: At the end of a trade union meeting to 
organise a general strike at provincial level, police 
storm workers who try to break into the city build- 
ings. Clashes spread out over the whole main square, 
resulting in many people being wounded. 

21 Bologna : Clashes between police and demonstra- 
tors. Three comrades are arrested. 

June 

5 Rome: Clashes break out between between po- 
lice and groups of comrades who were contesting 
a Democrazia Nazionale meeting. A Comunione e 
Liberazione bookshop is attacked with molotovs. 

July 

1 1 Rome: A group of homeless people blow up the 
office of the city assessor, dedicating the action to the 
CP bureaucrat. 

August 

/ 6 Capo Rizzuto Island: Anti-terrorist operation in- 
. ades holiday camp La Comune searching for wanted 
‘terrorists’. Clashes break out between hundreds of 
young campers and police. Not a shadow of a terror- 
ist to be found. 

October 

20 Florence: Demonstration of 10,000 hospital work- 
diffused urban guerrilla 



ers from all over the Tuscany region, and this self- 
managed movement spreads to all other Italian cities. 
The army is called in in some cities. 

23 Rome: Police break into a hospital and break up 
a nurses’ meeting. Clashes break out with injuries on 
both sides, and six arrests are made. 

30 Naples: Clashes between police and unemployed 
workers from the firm Hidropress which had put up 
road blocks in the city. 

Prison Revolts 

1976 March 

5 Naples: Poggioreale prison: 9 prisoners, all belong- 
ing to the NAP, attempt to escape. Discovered after 
taking a warder hostage, they barricade themselves 
in the ‘transit’ pavilion. They only come out after a 
communique has been read on the radio and televi- 
sion, and they are promised transfers to other prisons. 

May 

6 Turin: Bars are found to be sawn through in the 
new prison and an escape bid by three Red Brigades 
members and two other prisoners is foiled. 

August 

12 Catania: Incidents in the juvenile prison. Wild 
firing of machine guns against young prison- 
ers protesting about conditions and food, wounds 
a woman carrying child in the street outside. 
34 



14 Turin: In the new prison prisoners refuse to return 
to their cells after the exercise period. Guards open 
fire to intimidate them. Prisoners in Poggioreale also 
protest in solidarity and demand the immediate ap- 
plication of prison reforms. 

16 Nuoro: Rebellion in the prison where prisoners are 
demanding the suspension of a punishment meted 
out to one of their comrades. Furniture and fittings 
are set fire to. The prison is devastated. The revolt is 
quelled after hours of fighting which results in 20 
prisoners being wounded. 

18 Milan, Rimini, Augusta, Salerno, Rome: Prisoners 
demonstrate against the prison regime. In Perugia pris- 
oners forcibly refuse to be transferred to other prisons. 
20 Lecce: Mass escape from the prison where eleven 
prisoners immobilise guards and oblige them to open 
the prison gates. Four are captured a tew hours later. 
The others remain in liberty despite massive police 
operations throughout the area. 

26 Bologna: Escape attempt by three comrades is 
foiled — three hacksaws are confiscated. 

30 S. Vittore: A comrade is put in solitary confinement 
and other inmates of his wing call for his release. This 
is refused and a rooftop protest follows, ending only 
when he is returned to his cell. 

3 1 Turin: All the prisoners go on to the roof, demanding 
that the new prison reforms be put into effect. After 
fifty hours the police intervene in force. The prisoners 
prison revolts 



defend themselves with all possible means, and outside 
the prison groups of sympathisers clash with police. 


September 

15 Reggio Calabria: Police are called in with dogs to 
quell a revolt in the prison. One prisoner, a NAP 
comrade, is savaged by one of the dogs. 

30 Campobasso: After their escape attempt is discov- 
ered, four prisoners barricade themselves and two 
warders in a cell. They only come out twenty four 
hours later after a press conference where they reveal 
the inhuman conditions in the prison. 

October 

6 Catania: Revolt in the prison, resulting in the de- 
struction of a third of it. After police regain control 
two prisoners are found dead with knife wounds, and 
two others are wounded. 

8 Favignana: A judge is taken hostage by a prisoner 
who explains that his action is against ‘brutal State 
repression aimed at the physical elimination of com- 
batants inside the prison’. 

November 

25 Milan, S. Vittore: A rooftop demonstration by 250 
prisoners is attacked by police at dawn. A whole wing 
is devastated. 

December 

10 Palermo: Ucciardone prison: a revolt breaks out 
and goes on for twenty two hours. The prisoners 
36 



are demanding the Governor’s dismissal. Police use 
oxyacetylene cutting gear to break through barriers. 
Violent close combat clashes follow, resulting in many 
wounded on both sides. 

13 Florence: Fifteen prisoners at the Murate prison 
take one officer and six warders hostage. They only 
give in after they been granted transfers to prisons of 
their choice. 

1977 January 

/ Piacenza: Revolt in the prison. Police intervene im- 
mediately with machine guns. One prisoner is killed 
before the revolt is suppressed. 

2 Treviso: Thirteen prisoners take machine guns from 
guards and escape. 

3 Venice: Prisoners in a wing of the S. Maggiore prison 
clash with guards and police, resulting in the destruc- 
tion of the whole wing. 

5 Fossombrone: Six prisoners try to escape, four suc- 
ceed, but the other two are caught at the gate. Both 
are brutally beaten up by guards. One suffers a cere- 
bral haemorrhage and dies. 

22 Possuoli: Maria Pia Vianali and Franca Salerno, ac- 
cused ofbeing members of the NAP are sprung from 
prison. The NAP members on trial in Naples claim 
the organisation’s responsibility in the courtroom. 
February 

2 1 Saluzzo: An escape attempt by three comrades is 
prison revolts 



spotted by guards who open fire, wounding them. 
Two are recaptured immediately, the other takes ref- 
uge in a house which is then surrounded by police. 
To guarantee his safety, others in the prison take a 
warder and three fascist prisoners hostage. They are 
only released when all involved are granted transfers. 
23 Cuneo: Six prisoners escape over rooftops. 

April 

/ 1 Perugia: After a failed escape attempt, fourteen pris- 
oners barricade themselves in a cell along with four 
warders. They come out after being granted transfers 
to other prisons. 

17 Catania: Fifteen prisoners hold a rooftop protest 
for an hour and a half. In Brescia two hundred pris- 
oners stage a demonstration lasting sixteen hours. 

18 Viterbo: Four hours of revolt. Prisoners barricade 
themselves in the prison offices, smash windows, doors 
and desks. Some of the comrades manage to knock 
down a wall and get reinforcements from another wing. 

May 

7 Milan: One hundred sixty prisoners at S. Vittore re- 
fuse to return to their cells after the exercise period. 
They make their way to the roof and four companies 
of riot police are brought in. For two hours they fire 
into the air and throw tear gas canisters. 

8 Ravenna: Five prisoners escape. Pianosa (island pris- 
on) 3 prisoners escape. Two are caught by coastguards, 
the other escapes in an inflatable canoe. 

38 



June 

2 Forli: Nine prisoners celebrate the day of the Re- 
public by escaping from prison. 

4 Island of Pianosa: Five prisoners escape from the is- 
land prison in a rubber dinghy. 

9 Spoleto: A revolt breaks out in the prison: some Red 
Brigades and NAP comrades, along with a few other 
prisoners, take 12 warders hostage during the exer- 
cise period. 

July 

5: Five conscientious objectors in a military prison 
where they are doing their ‘national service’ begin a 
hunger strike to denounce the climate of repression 
put into effect by the military hierarchy over the past 
few months. 

27 Turin: A revolt holds out for three hours in the 
juvenile prison Ferranti Aporti. 

September 

13 Rome: Families and friends of prisoners in the 
super-prisons, Favignana, Cuneo, Trani, Asinara and 
Fossombrone present a formal complaint to the Min- 
ister of Justice and to the prison directors and ward- 
ers, about the inhuman treatment meted out in these 
concentration camps. 

November 

15 Turin: A group of prisoners in Le Nuove prison re- 
fuse to return to their cells at the end of the exercise 
period. The protest is about the non-functioning of 
prison revolts 



the sewage system in the isolation cells where about 
one hundred twenty prisoners are living amid shit. 
December 

12 Turin: For the past three days 300 prisoners in the 
Nuove prison have been on hunger strike in protest 
against the super-prisons, demanding the demilitarisa- 
tion of the prison guards, and more humane sentences. 
16 Nuoro: Two prisoners escape from the penal colo- 
ny Mamone. 

1978 January 

20 Florence: A group of five people manage to en- 
ter the Murate prison with the intention of freeing 
comrades accused of belonging to the Unita Com- 
battente Comuniste. The action fails as a passer by 
recognises the van parked outside the prison as being 
one that had been stolen the previous day. Crossfire 
follows on the arrival of a police flying squad, and 
one PS officer is killed, another injured. 

February 

5 Parma: Three prisoners attempt to escape. When 
they are discovered, they hold the prison director and 
some screws hostage, and only free them after they 
have been granted transfers to other prisons. 

27 Arezzo: Prisoners in the local prison begin a hunger 
strike in solidarity with those doing the same in Padova. 
March 

26 Milan: Five prisoners escape from the juvenile 
40 



prison Beccaria after taking two guards hostage. 

July 

Salerno: Four prisoners take eight guards hostage in an 
attempt to regain their freedom. In the end they have 
to content themselves with transfers to other prisons. 
August 

1 9 Asmara: Revolt in the super-prison. Five prison- 
ers destroy the visiting room and distribute leaflets 
to prisoners. Prisoners on their exercise period are 
attacked by guards, and heavy clashes follow. Many 
prisoners are severely beaten up, and one anarchist, 
Florst Fantazzini, who has on previous occasions 
made miraculous recoveries from police bullets, was 
taken to hospital in a semi-comatose state. 

23 Pavia: Three prisoners slash their wrists and wound 
themselves in various parts of their bodies in protest 
against the judge’s refusal to let them have visits from 
their families. 

29 Milan: Three 18-year-old prisoners escape from 
the juvenile prison, taking a warder with them until 
they reach the outside gates. Two are arrested the fol- 
lowing day. 

September 

9 Cuneo: Comrade Giuliano Isa destroys five inter- 
phones in the visiting hall in the local super-prison. A 
similar action is carried out by five comrades in the 
concentration camp of Favignana. 

12 Novara: The visiting room of the superprison is 
prison revolts 



damaged during the night. 

15 Messina: The prisoners in the female maximum- 
security wing destroy the interphones in the visiting 
room, and claim the action in a communique where 
they put forward demands concerning internal and 
external isolation. 

20 Latina: The presumed NAP militant Silvano Inno- 
centi escapes in a motorboat from the island of Ponza 
where he was in forced residence. 

23 Asinara: The prisoners in the Fornelli section break 
down the walls dividing the cells during a revolt or- 
ganised to demand the abolition of the super-prisons. 
The wing is evacuated and the prisoners transferred 
to other parts of the island. 

24 Genoa: Protest in the Marassi prison, where pris- 
oners refuse to go back into their cells after the ex- 
ercise period. Carabinieri and PS divisions are called 
in to intervene. 

25 Nuoro: A prisoner escapes from the penal colony 
Mamone. 

October 

10 Cagliari: A prisoner serving four years for robbery 
escapes from the prison camp. 13: Six young prison- 
ers who were not due to be released until 1981, es- 
cape from borstal. 

November 

17 Favignana: Incidents inside the super-prison where 
six prisoners rebelled against guards who were trying 
42 



to force them to re-enter their cells. 


Prisons, Courts, and the Legal Hierarchy 

1976 January 

28 Rome: Six pistol shots are fired at appeal Court 
Counsellor Pietro Margariti.The action is claimed by 
the nucleus Sergio Romeo.The NAP issue a bulletin: 
The counsellor oj the Appeal Court, Pietro Margariti, is re- 
sponsible for the ill-treatment, persecution and transfers that 
comrade prisoners are subjected to. He is responsible for the 
massacre of the proletarian prisoners in Rebibbia during the 
revolt of August 1915, and transfers to the most disgusting 
prisons in Italy, as well as beatings, provocations, etc. . . 

April 

22 Milan: A Red Brigades/NAP cell enter the of- 
fices of the regional prison inspectorate and take away 
various papers. A leaflet is left: ‘prisons are the final 
link in the chain of anti-proletarian repression...’ 

May 

Four pistol shots are fired at deputy Procurator of the 
Republic, Paolino dell’Anno. The action is claimed 
by the NAP. 

June 

8 Genoa: The Procurator General, Francesco Coco, 
and his escort of two carabinieri are killed. The ac- 
tion is claimed by the Red Brigades in a leaflet and in 
a declaration by some of their members in the court 
prisons, courts, and the legal hierarchy 



ofTurin. 


November 

/ Florence: The car belonging to the deputy Procura- 
tor of the Republic and Public Prosecutor in the trial 
against the NAP is burned. 

1977 January 

28 Rome: A High Court judge’s car is burned. The 
action is claimed by NAP. 

February 

13 Bergamo: Five bombs explode, destroying two pris- 
on buildings under construction. 

March 

14 Avelliiw: Incendiary devices destroy car and van 
used for transporting prisoners. 

20 Augusta: Arson at prison warehouse causes millions 
of lire damage. 

30 Pisa: Alberto Mammoli, the prison doctor at the 
time of the death of anarchist comrade Franco Seran- 
tini who was, along with others, responsible for his 
death, is seriously wounded with three pistol shots. 
Action claimed by Azione Rivoluzionaria. 

April 

2 8 Turin: A Red Brigades cell kill lawyer Fulvio Croce, 
president ofTurin Law Society.The action takes place 
on the eve of the Red Brigades’ trial with the aim of 
having it postponed. 


44 



May 

4 Brescia: Prison doctor’s house set on fire with petrol 
bombs. 

1 6 Ercolano: Two explosives go off against a villa used 
as a training school for prison personnel. 

7 9 Bologna: Deputy Procurator of the Republic’s car 
burned. 

June 

19 Turin: An architect’s studio raided and documents 
relative to the construction of the new prison Valette 
are removed. The contents of the documents are to 
be revealed by the comrades. 

30 Spoleto: The Red Brigades explode a bomb against 
the prison walls. 

July 

1 7 Florence: A series of explosions cause considerable 
damage to the new prison under construction at Sol- 
licciano. Action claimed by an armed nucleus ofAzi- 
one Riuoluzionaria. 

7 7 Leghorn: The engine of a crane and builders’ huts 
on the site of the prison under construction in via 
Padula are bombed. This is claimed by Azione Riv- 
oluzionaria. 

October 

9 Como: Incendiary bottles thrown against the prison 
gates, setting fire to them. Action claimed by Azione 
Combattenti Comuniste. 

75 L’Aquila: Court building set fire to. Widespread 
prisons, courts, andthe legal hierarchy 



damage. Action claimed by Unita di Lotta Armata per 
il Comunismo. 

November 

19 Turin: The regional Inspectorate of Prison Sen- 
tences is bombed. 

December: 

Turin: Prima Linea claim the bombing carried out 
with 400 sticks of explosive against the new prison 
under construction. To trick the guards the comrades 
arrive dressed as policemen, then immobilise them. 
Sassari: Five explosives are placed in front of the 
house of deputy procurator of the Republic, but the 
fuse goes out due to a technical fault. 

1978 January 

2 Palermo: Car of local High Court judge burned. 

30 Spoleto: Eight charges ofTNT cause another half 
billion lire damage to foundations of the new prison 
Maiano. 

February 

7 Vibo Valentia: Pistol shots are fired against the home 
of the prison director. 

1 4 Rome: The judge involved in prison construction 
and under whose direction the special prisons were 
built, is brought to justice by the Red Brigades. 

March 

5 Turin: Bomb attack, claimed in telephone call by 
Red Brigades, against home of lawyer Manni, presi- 

46 



dent of the Law Society. The attack takes place three 
days before the commencement of the supertrial of 
the “historic nucleus” of the Red Brigades. 

27 Nuoro: Van used for transporting prisoners is set 
fire to by group Barbagia Rossa. 

April 

Catania: Two hooded men wound the chief prison 
warden in the legs. 

/ 1 Turin: A Red Brigades cell ambush a prison guard 
outside his home. The guard retaliates, wounding one 
of the comrades, then is killed by the other members 
of the cell. 

19 Milan: Assistant-governor of San Vittore prison is 
killed by the Walter Alesia column of the Red Brigades. 
May 

6 Novara: The prison doctor is wounded by 2 pistol 
shots by a group Proletari Armati per il Comunismo. 
24 Rome: Bomb against the offices of the Ministry of 
Justice. 

24 Cagliari: The car belonging to a warder at Buon- 
cammino prison is destroyed by fire. 

June 

3 Nuoro: Bombs against cars of two prison warders. 

6 Udine: Proletari Armati per il Comunismo shoot 
and kill the chief warder of the local prison. 

July 

/ 7 Tivoli: A bomb explodes against the door of the 
juvenile prison Tommaseo. 
prisons, courts, andthe legal hierarchy 



August 

I 4 Tropea: An explosive charge is placed in front of the 
local prison, blowing up a warder’s car. 

19 Bergamo: Pistol shots and machine gun fire from 
a car strike a prison sentinel and a passing police car. 
24 Bergamo: Shots fired during the night against a 
prison sentinel. 

24 Verona: Local prison warder lamed by Proletari Ar- 
mati per il Comunismo. 

October 

10 Rome: Judge Girolamo Tartaglione, responsible for 
the persecution of many comrades through his posi- 
tion at the Ministry of Justice, is himself brought to 
justice by a Red Brigades cell. 

I I Naples: Alfredo Paolella, university lecturer and 
collaborator in the plan for restructuring of prisons 
as well as being director of the Centre for Crimino- 
logical Observation at Poggioreale prison, is brought 
to justice by Prima Linea. 

November 

3 Genoa: Red Brigades burn cars belonging to two 
prison guards noted for beating up prisoners. 

8 Patrica: A commando of Formazione Comuniste 
Combattenti ambush the chief procurator of Frosin- 
one, Calvosi and his police escort. One of the com- 
rades Roberto Capone, is killed during the action. 

13 Milan: The health inspector of San Vittore prison 
is shot in the legs by Reparti Comunisti d’Attacco. 

48 



15 Florence: Prison doctor of the Murate escapes un- 
hurt when his car explodes on turning the ignition 
key. Action claimed by Red Brigades. 

1 7 Turin: Squadre Armate Proletarie break into the of- 
fice of the architect responsible for transformation of 
La Marmora police station into a bunker for holding 
Red Brigades members awaiting trial. They fire four 
shots into his arms and legs. 

28 Naples: Director of S. Maria CaputaVetere prison 
shot in the shoulder. 

Expropriation 

1976 March 

15 Milan: A milk lorry is attacked and milk is given 
away free. 

28 Monte Cassino: Proletarian shopping inside the FIAT 
Cassino. The canteen stores are plundered to the cry 
of workers, help yourselves , while calculators and type- 
writers are destroyed. The scene moves to the office 
buildings, where the same thing happens. While union 
officials and factory bosses are carrying out an on the 
spot investigation, the stores are given a final clearout, 
putting the cost of damage at over 15 million lire. 

May 

27 Turin: Red Brigades expropriate 60 million lire 
from the Polytechnic. 

3 1 Noale (Venice): Robbery carried out by the Red 
Brigades in a branch of the Savings Bank, 
expropriation 



June 

14 Rome: A meat wholesaler is kidnapped by Unita 
Combattente Comuniste who ask for large quanti- 
ties of prime meat to be delivered to 71 butchers in 
23 areas, to be sold at the political price of 1,500 
lire (about 90 pence) per kilo. Unfortunately he was 
found by police before the conditions were met. 

15 Pegli: The NAP claim a robbery in a telephone call: 
This morning we expropriated, in the name of the proletariat, 
5 million lire from the Banca Popolare di Novara. 

37 Milan: In Parco Lambra during the festival of Pro- 
letariate Giovanile, comrades plunder a bar. The same 
thing happens to two lorry loads of food. The young 
proletariat are no longer willing to fatten up specula- 
tors, no matter how they disguise themselves. 

July 

27 Ravenna: Requisition from a supermarket: fruit, 
clothing and groceries. 

September 

15 Brescia: Four people rob the Credito Agrario bank 
of 50 million lire. As they are leaving they declare that 
they belong to the Red Brigades. 

26 Milan: Expropriation in the elegant confectioners 
Motta. Nearly all the goods displayed are taken away. 
October 

21 Milan: Expropriation in one of the most famous 
bookshops in the city. Comrades empty the till, and 
take away books to the value of half a million lire. 

50 



November 

7 Milan: Three thousand comrades break into 5 lux- 
ury cinemas in the city and force the managers to 
reduce the tickets to 500 lire each. 

30 Venice: The Red Brigades rob a bank in the city, 
taking away 80 million lire. 

December 

3 Milan: About a hundred people loot a supermarket, 
taking away goods to the value of several million lire. 

1977 February 

22 Naples: Following a trade union open meeting, 
many luxury shops are looted. 

March 

13 Catanzaro: Proletarian expropriation in a local 
bank, yielding 40 million lire. 

28 Rome: A bread van is hijacked by young armed 
people who distribute the bread among passersby. 

April 

3 Genoa: Piero Costa, armaments entrepreneur kid- 
napped by the Red Brigades 80 days before, is re- 
leased on payment ot one and a half billion lire. 

June 

8 Bologna: Trial begins against 22 students and a 66 
year old woman accused of stealing napkins, table- 
cloths, cutlery, food, etc., from a restaurant frequented 
by the local bourgeoisie and a common haunt for 
Communist Party... business lunches. 

expropriation 



September 

25 Bologna: Expropriations in many shops during the 
three days’ meeting on Repression. 

November 

15 Milan: Demonstration followed by proletarian ex- 
propriation in a store in Corso Italia. 

1978 February 

10 Prato: During an attempted expropriation three 
comrades of Lotta Armata per il Comunismo end up 
having to kill a notary, who was evidently more at- 
tached to money than his life. 

19 Milan: 12 furs are stolen from the cloakroom of a 
private club. They are worth a total of 60 million lire. 
A note is found in their place addressed to the “gra- 
cious attention of the bourgeoisie,” and signed “Nu- 
cleo Anarchici Proletari.” 

April 

17 Bologna: Comrades break into an opticians and an 
electrodomestic appliances store and take away many 
of the goods. 

May 

27 Bologna: Ronde Proletarie di Combattimento 
empty the till in a shoe shop and then set fire to 
it, leaving written on the walls: “Fire to those who 
finance the MSI.” 

July 

20 Castiglione del Lago: A group of young people 
52 



gathered for the Umbria-jazz concerts, plunder a 
Coop supermarket. 

October 

19 Padova: The University refectory is set fire to fol- 
lowing recent episodes ot sell-reduction in food prices. 
There are approximately 1,800 lire to one pound sterling. 1 
million lire is therefore approximately 550 pounds sterling, 
1 billion lire, 550,000 pounds sterling. 

Victims of Repression 

1976 March 

1 4 Rome: Police make chase on a group of about twen- 
ty comrades following a molotov attack on the Span- 
ish Embassy in protest against the shooting of seven 
people in the streets of Spain. At one point three po- 
licemen open fire on a group of young people spotted 
running in a part of the city far away from the Em- 
bassy. They say they fired into the air with the aim of 
intimidating them, but the body ot comrade Luigi De 
Angelis, killed by a bullet in the calf, tells another story. 
April 

7 Monticelli: Six molotovs are thrown against the en- 
trance to the Ministry of Justice following the confir- 
mation ot the sentence of nine years meted out to an- 
archist comrade Giovanni Marini for having defended 
himselt against an attack by fascists, killing one ot them. 
Police guards begin a wild chase, and at least 200 yards 
from the Ministry a young comrade is shot in the neck. 


victims of repression 



The usual cry of legitimate defence is hurled by the 
assassins, but no gun was found in the hand of Mario 
Salvi, nor did it appear in any of the police photographs. 
28 Milan: Gaetano Amoroso, Luigi Spera and Carlo 
Palma, three members of the Antifascist Committee, 
are knifed by a group of fascists. The three are taken 
to hospital in serious condition, and Gaetano Amo- 
roso dies three days later. 

May 

28 Sezze Romano: Following a MSI meeting, a fas- 
cist gang led by the honourable Saccucci and SID 
inspector Troccia, fire repeatedly all over the village. 
A young CP member is killed and a Lotta Continua 
militant injured. The police could have arrested Sac- 
cucci at the time of the shooting, but he is allowed to 
leave the country. 

1977 January 

12 Cagliari: A fifteen-year-old boy is killed by police. 
He was trying to steal a car and was slaughtered by a 
volley of machine gun fire — which as always in the 
case of proletarian victims, happened “by accident.’’ 

March 

1 1 Bologna: After clashes at the University between 
comrades and Comunione e Liberazione members 
carabinieri open fire, killing Francesco Lo Russo, 
Lotta continua militant. The reaction of thousands of 
proletarians is immediate. 

54 



17 Turin: Student Bruno Cecchetti is killed by ma- 
chine gun fire by a carabinieri squadron as he is 
walking home.They say the shooting was an accident 
when they could not substantiate their first claim 
(that Cecchetti had threatened them with a pistol). 
April 

28 Agrigento: A 46-year-old man, Vincenzio Ponzio, 
“in prison for insulting a public official” is found 
hanged in his cell. 

May 

12 Rome: The Government bans the Radicals’ demon- 
stration in the city and call in police. They shoot into 
the crowd and kill a 19 year old girl, Giorgiana Masi. 

June 

8 Milan: A 27 year old worker, Orazio Gilardoni, falls 
from the roof of one of the railway station buildings, 
killing himself. Another ‘accident’ at work. 

1 6 Reggio Emilia: Another death on the exploitation 
front. A 68 year old worker, Aldo Tonelli, was clean- 
ing an irrigation canal along with other workmates, 
when he was buried under soil and died. 

24 Milan: A 39-year-old woman from Calabria mar- 
ried to an unemployed immigrant worker dies of 
malnutrition. 

July 

1 1 Cassino: Seven workers are injured following a gas 
explosion at work. 

15 Latina: A worker falls to his death from an un- 


victims of repression 



steady ladder at the Fulgor Cavi Cable Company. 
He remains unattended for hours before his body is 
found. One of the company managers tries to con- 
ceal the fact that the ladder was faulty. 

7 8 Alessandria: 53-year-old peasant Giuseppe Squarise 
was fitting cement piping in a hole fifteen feet deep 
when he was knocked down by falling soil and killed. 
22 Milan: Prima Linea distribute a leaflet claiming 
an arms expropriation carried out by three of their 
members on the 19th, when one comrade, Romano 
Tognini, “Valerio” was killed. 

22 Milan: A 32-year-old father of three dies after nine 
hours of agony following an explosion in the SECI 
factory Quarto Oggiaro. 

26 La Spezia: A 44-year-old worker Silvano Petacco, 
dies as a result of having been bitten by a rat while 
cleaning a drain a few days before. 

30 Gela: Explosion during the night in the ANIC fac- 
tory killing one worker, 28. Two others, 24 and 39, 
die a few day later. 

August 

3 Udine: Ennio Mian, 17, kills himself because he can- 
not find work. 

7 Naples: Luigi Muioi, 25 and father of three, dies of 
an electric shock while working in a rubber factory. 

8 Trieste: A 37-year-old worker employed in the 
maintenance of an incinerator falls, hitting his head 
on the floor of the furnace combustion chamber and 


56 



dies instantly. 

8 Terlano: Sergio Petri, 25, dies after falling from scaf- 
folding. 

8 Spitietta: A 15-year-old boy is working with his fa- 
ther doing painting for Michelin when he falls from 
scaffolding and dies. 

9 Nocera Inferiore: A 22-year-old worker dies and his 
brother is seriously injured when the balcony they 
are working on collapses. 

9 Viccini: A 21 -year-old worker falls from scaffolding 
on the third floor of a building he is working on and 
dies instantly. 

12 Ravenna: Edoardo Minguzzi, 54, dies buried under 
tons of chaff while working in a granary. 

19 Turin: Giuseppe Ferrari, a 59-year-old worker, is 
killed by an electric shock while working in an elec- 
tric terminal box. 

19 Moggio Udinese: Another worker is killed by an 
electric shock, this time while working on a building 
site. He was 23. 

19 Ampezzo: A 33-year-old worker dies after falling 
from scaffolding. 

28 Bolzano: A cook dies after being burned in the 
kitchen where he was employed. 

3 1 Agrigen to: Three workers die, crushed by a crane 
while working on the construction of a viaduct. 

15 Porto Empedocle: A worker dies in one of the 
Montedison plants, crushed by a conveyor belt, 
victims of repression 



September 

7 Turin: A worker is crushed by a mechanical saw in 
the Alcan aluminium factory and dies. 

7 Brescia: Luciano Pitossi, 27, is killed by machine gun 
fire from police patrol cars. In the past he had stolen 
a car, and now he pays for it with his life. 

7 3 Naples: 23-year-old Gerardo Fioravanti, suspected 
of armed robbery, is shot dead by two policemen. As 
always, the names of the police are not made public. 

13 Milan: a 46-year-old worker gives his arm to the 
bosses of SALCIM. It was pulled off by a lithographic 
machine while he was working it. 

7 4 Nocera Inferiore: Anna Maria, 29, goes into hospital 
to be treated, but dies, and nobody knows why. 

14 Naples: Coast guard captain gives orders to open 
fire on a Greek ship because it does not stop at the 
customs. Result: one dead, a 25-year-old sailor. Rea- 
son for shooting? Suspected smuggling. 

7 4 Roviga: The warehouse of a fireworks factory ex- 
plodes causing the death of one of the workers. 

77 Pescara: William Marinelli, 16, is killed by police. 
He had stolen a car. 

19 Bergamo: After 15 years of torture and being trans- 
ported from one asylum to another, Palmira Valle, 29, 
is found dead tied to a bed in a psychiatric hospital. 
Death was due to suffocation by the sheet she was 
tied up with. 

27 Florence: Another death at work due to electric 


58 



shock. This time the victim was 32 and worked on 
the railways. 

22 Naples: Seven directors at the Montefibre factory 
are charged at an inquest concerning the deaths of 
three workers. 

22 Cavarzere: A young soldier doing military service 
is shot dead by a guard on duty while entering the 
barracks because he did not give the password. 

23 Cagliari: A nurse hangs herself for fear of being 
made redundant. She had been off sick for a few 
months and had received a letter from the hospital 
management telling her of the probability of a sus- 
pension of work. 

28 Caltanissetta: The number of deaths due to ty- 
phoid among the poor people of the village reaches 
one hundred forty three. 

28 Cutieo: Two workers are killed when the boiler 
they are working on explodes. 

30 Rome: Walter Rossi, a Lotta Continua militant, is 
killed by fascists while giving out leaflets condemn- 
ing the shooting of Elena Paccinelh by four fascists 
the previous Thursday. A petrol pump attendant at a 
nearby filling station was also wounded. 

October 

4 Alghero: An 88-year-old man throws himself from 
rocks 45 feet high. He killed himself because, as he 
had no daughters left, his sons were going to put him 
into a State-run old people’s home, 
victims of repression 



4 L’Aqnila: Another woman employed at the ACE fac- 
tory dies of cancer. She was 42 years old, mother of two 
children. Two others who died recently were aged 34 
and 42. All three workers had been in contact with tox- 
ic substances that had been proved to be carcinogenic. 
13 Naples: A 32-year-old man dies of a benign brain 
tumour in the psychiatric hospital Nocera Inferiore. 
Although he had shown symptoms of a brain tumour 
over the past ten years, the doctors at the asylum 
where he was locked up had been filling him up with 
anti-epileptic drugs, and only sent him to hospital 
when he was already in a coma. 

15 Cliieti: Another victim of work. A 44-year-old 
worker falls from the seventh floor of a building he 
was demolishing. Five more children find themselves 
fatherless. 

21 Trento: A woodman dies, crushed by a tree-trunk. 
Another workman dies after being struck by a huge 
steel telegraph cable. 

November 

4: Three more workers die for the bosses: In Ascoli 
Piceno, a 27-year-old worker at Elettro-carbonium 
is crushed by a huge electrode of amorphous car- 
bon. In Troina, two workers, one 32, the other 14, are 
crushed by a lift while working on a building site. 
The first dies, the second is seriously injured. 

8 Rome: A young car thief is sentenced to death by 
the city police who give chase to him and shoot and 
60 



kill him. 

15 Porto Marghera, Venice: Three workers at the Monte- 
dison plant are victims of an accident at work. They 
are seriously burned by flames from a gas tank. 

15 Milan: A tank full of petrol explodes, killing one 
person and leaving two seriously wounded. 

2 1 November: An unknown man dies of cold. He was 
found dead from exposure in his home — the street. 
24 Turin: Capital punishment for 22-year-old Antonio 
Torchia. He had a record for theft and robbery, and 
ended up being shot in the back by a carabinieri patrol. 
28 Bari: Two young communists, Benedetto Petrone 
and Francesco Intrano,are attacked by fascists. Petrone 
is killed, Intrano seriously wounded. 

December 

4 Olgiate: Another execution at the hands of the cara- 
binieri. A young man accused of fraud did not stop at 
a halt signal and the executioner shot him in the back 
and neck, killing him. 

8 Alghero: A 16-year-old boy is killed by private cops 
while stealing a pair of shoes in a boutique. An im- 
mediate demonstration of protest is organised by 
comrades, resulting in clashes with the police and the 
smashing of shop windows. 

8 Brindisi: Three workers killed at work and fifty two 
injured, at the Montedison plant. 

8 Milan: Clarice Anceschi, 93, commits suicide by 
throwing herself from a fourth floor window. She was 
victims of repression 



an internee in a hospice for old people. 

1 1 Catania: Private guard at an orange grove kills a 
30-year-old man for stealing a box of oranges. 

1 1 Lodi: Another life to the bosses: a 20-year-old 
builder falls to his death through a roof. 

25 Sassari: A 21 -year-old prisoner dies. The official 
version is that he banged his head against the wall 
while playing around with his cellmates. 

26 Milan: Mauro Larghi, a comrade ofAutonomia Op- 
eraia arrested ten days ago for disarming a night guard, 
dies as the result of a beating at the time of his arrest. 

1978 January 

5 Rome: 20-year-old drug addict Bruno Santini dies 
in the prison medical centre while awaiting trail. 

6 Florence: A 68-year-old prisoner kills himself by 
throwing himself from a third floor window. 

15 Ravenna: A 73-year-old man, arrested for stealing 
a bar of chocolate, hangs himself in an isolation cell 
four hours after his arrest. 

1 7 Afragola: A police patrol kills Giovanni D’Ambra 
(20) with machine gun fire while he is escaping from 
prison. 

25 Lucca: Two workers are killed and five are injured 
when the machine they are testing explodes. 

February 

21 Padova: Sergio Secchi, 26 and prisoner in the Cas- 
tello prison, kills himself using a camping gas canister. 
62 



March 

7 Venice: A 33-year-old porter picked up by the police 
for being drunk hangs himself in a police cell. 

10 Rome: A 38-year-old prisoner sentenced for theft 
hangs himself in his cell. A similar episode takes place 
inVercelli prison where a 56-year-old prisoner kills 
himself. 

17 San Donato Milanese: A 17-year-old boy is shot in 
the back by police at a road block. 

18 Milan: Two young anarchists, Lorenzo Ianucci and 
Fausto Tinelli, are shot dead in mysterious circum- 
stances. Police try to construct a confused story of 
drugs around the case, but the political motivations 
for the murders are all too obvious. 

April 

7 Bolzano: A man is arrested because he cheered on 
hearing of Moro’s death. 

9 Imperia: A 17-year-old boy dies crushed against a 
lorry when he tries to avoid a road block as he was 
driving a car without a licence. 

1 1 Naples: A 22-year-old prisoner commits suicide by 
hanging himself from the bars of his cell. 

11 Torreannunziata: A 14-year-old boy is mortally 
wounded by machine gun fire from carabinieri at a 
road block. 

May 

4 Bologna: In a shootout with police following a rob- 
bery, 21 -year-old revolutionary militant Roberto 
victims of repression 



Rigobello is killed by machine gun fire. Marco Ti- 
rabovi is arrested. 

9 Palermo: Democrazia Proletaria comrade Giuseppe 
Impastato, is assassinated by the local mafia against 
whom he had been fighting a courageous battle. They 
exploded a charge ofTNT against him in such a way 
as to confuse police reports with talk of suicide or a 
failed bomb attack. 

12 Venice: Following an armed robbery the police kill 
Silvano Maestrello, known for his many escapes. He 
had managed to regain his freedom at least seven times. 
20 Naples: A 45-year-old prisoner awaiting trial com- 
mits suicide in prison. 

June 

I Rome: A 25-year-old prisoner awaiting trial hangs 
himself in Rebibbia prison. 

3 Grosseto: A 33-year-old Moroccan is killed by a vol- 
ley of machine gun fire in obscure circumstances in- 
side the carabinieri barracks. 

7 Cagliari: A prisoner waiting to be transferred from a 
prison asylum hangs himself in his cell. 

II Venice: A policeman kills a 19-year-old who was 
loitering near a car. 

29 Milan: A 33-year-old prisoner hangs himself in his 
cell. 

July 

31 Bergamo: A young man aged 21 hangs himself in 
a carabinieri barracks cell after being arrested for at- 
64 



tempted theft. 


August 

Naples: A 17-year-old prisoner awaiting trial for steal- 
ing 50,000 lire (about twenty five pounds), hangs 
himself in the bathroom of the juvenile prison where 
he is being held. 

3 l Saluzzo: A 45-year-old prisoner arrested the pre- 
vious day for shoplifting, hangs himself. 

September 

1 9 Genova: A toxic sulphurous cloud kills three work- 
ers in a tannery in a few seconds, poisons many oth- 
ers and spreads over the whole area. The lorry driver 
who made a mistake while unloading his tank is in 
prison; the factory bosses on the other hand are walk- 
ing around freely. 

October 

6 Ravenna: A 20-year-old heroin addict dies in prison. 

November 

Florence: A 22-year-old woman dies following a back 
street abortion. 


Sweat Labour 

1977 March 

24 Milan: A “patrol against sweat labour” breaks into 
the porters’ cooperative Dusmet. Before leaving they 
devastate the premises and take away money and vari- 
ous objects. 


politicians and party headquarters 



April 

2: An armed commando of five enter the office of the 
firm Maros. They devastate the office and take away 
2 million lire. 

29 Milan: An armed nucleus breaks into the depot of 
a door-to-door cosmetics firm. They leave a leaflet: 
...Sweat labour is the main way chosen by multinational 
capitalism today to realise its two basic objectives: to obtain 
increased profits by remodelling productivity, and reconstruct- 
ing a global command of the proletariat through the constric- 
tion of wage slavery. 

May 

W Milan: An “armed band of young proletarians” 
breaks into the office of Rizzoli publishers. Faces 
covered by balaclavas and arms in hand, they close 
the employees and clients in one room and set up 
incendiary devices in the editors office that explode 
simultaneously. On the walls: ‘the dens of sweat la- 
bour will be closed by fire’. 

June 

30 Milan: Two bombs against youth employment of- 
fices. A leaflet is left by Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari 
denouncing the exploitation of the young work force. 

July 

4 Porto Marghera: A fire breaks out in a factory that 
produces lenses, causing 600 million lire damage. 
Claimed jointly by the Red Brigades/NAP. 


66 



1978 January 

26 Bologna: Nuclei Combattenti Comunisti devastate 
sweatshop Mary Johns. 

February 

4 La Spezia: Luisa Spagnoli extracts her profits by specu- 
lating on the backs oj proletarian prisoners. This is why one 
o f her lairs has been closed. This is a leaflet left by Azi- 
one Rivoluzionaria at the site of attack on one of the 
Luisa Spagnoli chain of dress shops in Cagliari: Lotta 
Femniinista claim a fire at the Rinascente superstore. 
18 Vicenza: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu- 
nismo claim an action against a porters’ cooperative, 
placing it in the struggle against sweat labour. 

26 Rome: Ronde Femministe di Quartiere bomb a 
baby-sitting agency, saying in a leaflet claiming the at- 
tack We will no longer accept the blackmail of sweat labour. 
March 

12 Varese: The new depot of Bassani Ticino, a firm 
that has got rich through the exploitation of prison- 
ers, is completely destroyed in a fire claimed by Unita 
Combattenti Comuniste. 

May 

1 2 Zane: A group of comrades from Autonomia Op- 
eraia devastate the offices of a contracting firm that 
exploits sweat labour. 

November 

21 Turin: Squadre Armate Combattente break into 
the offices of an agency for domestic work, lmmobil- 
politiciansand party headquarters 



ise the employees and the women in charge, leaving 
on the walls: Attack the dens of sweat labour. 

Politicians and Party Headquarters 

1976 March 

6 Milan: Two armed groups break into the publish- 
ers Jaca Books and the editorial offices of Supermi- 
lano, both linked to Comunione e Liberazione. Both 
places are devastated. 

15 Milan: During a demonstration in protest against 
the imprisonment of four comrades three fascist dens 
are firebombed. 

20 Milan: Molotovs thrown against a Christian Dem- 
ocrat party premises and a car parked outside a church. 
27 Rome: Seven people break into the cultural cen- 
tre run by Christian Democrats and Comunione e 
Liberazione. The centre is wrecked. Action claimed 
by Lotta Armata per il Comunismo. 

3 1 Milan: A nucleus of comrades breaks into a pizze- 
ria where the hard core fascists of the area congregate, 
and where some of the thugs’ actions are coordinated. 
The pizzeria is completely destroyed and some of its 
regular customers wounded. 

April 

4 Turin: A fascist meeting place. Bar Sergio, is devas- 
tated. 

25 Salerno: Comrades break into the Augusto theatre 
where the Communist Party and Christian Demo- 


68 



crats are together celebrating the anniversary of the 
Resistance. The Christian Democrats are manhan- 
dled and their flag set fire to. 

29 Milan: MSI provincial councillor Enrico Pedinovi 
is brought to justice with five pistol shots. 

30 Rome: Library of ancient Spanish History is set fire 
to. Claimed by nucleus defining itself International 
Brigade Paeredes Manot. A leaflet left in a nearby 
telephone box reads: The Francoist den Villalbani has 
been destroyed. Disguised as a Spanish library, this place con- 
cealed many liaison activities between the neo-fascist organ- 
isations of central Europe, a shunting point for the clandestine 
activities oj the many Italian fascists involved in the Borghese 
coup, and the bombings of Avanguardia Nazionale. 

June 

6 Rome: The cinema Barberini is set fire to prior to a 
fascist meeting. 

9 Padova: Just before an MSI meeting is due to take 
place a group of comrades wreck and set fire to a 
fascist lair and destroy it completely. 

17 Milan: Comrades close the electoral campaign. Af- 
ter an MSI meeting a lorry belonging to the firm 
that had put up the stage where the fascists spoke was 
burned. The same thing happens to the Nazi group 
meeting place Alternativa, and the MSI rooms in 
Corso Genova. The celebration ends with the burn- 
ing of a pizzeria that was the areas fascist haunt. 

26: Christian Democrat member’s car burned. 


politicians and party headquarters 



Claimed by Lotta Armata per il Comunismo. 
September 

27 Padova: Three people break into the premises of 
Mondo Libero, a fascist newspaper. Those present are 
tied up, and the three take away various documents. 
The emblem of the Red Brigades is drawn on the wall. 
October 

2 Milan: After knocking down the wall with a pick- 
axe, comrades break into the fascist premises on viale 
Murillo. They completely destroy the offices and 
burn furniture and documents in the street. 

5 Candoglia: Unita Comuniste Conrbattente claim an 
attack against the Christian Democrat premises. 

13 Varese: Two molotovs and a shower of bullets 
against the Christian Democrat rooms. 

20 Carrara: Christian Democrat rooms devastated and 
set fire to. 

30 Florence: Christian Democrat rooms burned. Other 
attacks against a Savings Bank and carabinieri bar- 
racks. 

November 

10: Unita combattente comuniste enter the appart- 
ment of PSDI deputy, tie him up, search the house 
and take the money they find. 

December 

1 Milan: A Red Brigades cell breaks into the offices 
of Democrazia Nuova. Those present are tied up and 
a million lire expropriated. 

70 



14 Vicenza: Headquarters of Centro Cristiano Lavora- 
tori (Centre for Christian Workers) are broken into and 
documents removed. Lotta Armata per il Comunismo. 

15 Taranto: PLI headquarters devastated. In Naples a 
Christian Democrat premises is burned. In Rome an 
explosion damages MSI headquarters, and the Co- 
munione e Liberazione premises are attacked. 

1977 January 

/ 0 Rome: EUR Congress Palace become a target for 
explosions that go off in the entrance hall, stopping 
an MSI meeting from taking place. Action claimed by 
‘new partisans’. 

24 Turin: Three Christian Democrats' cars burned. 

February 

6 Rome: Gruppo Guerriglieri Maria Cagol carry out 
a series of attacks including the destruction of a car 
belonging to a notorious fascist. 

10 Bologna: Seven molotovs are thrown against the 
premises of Comunione e Liberazione, more against 
a Christian Democrat premises. Later in the day a 
Christian Democrat and a fascist meeting place are 
set afire. 

13 Bari: MSI and Christian Democrat premises set 
afire, as well as the car of a fascist district councillor. 
22 Naples: Fascist meeting place Contro Corrente is 
set afire after a trades union meeting. 

24 Bologna: Two cars belonging to Christian Demo- 
politiciansand party headquarters 



crat councillors are burned. 

March 

2/ Spoleto: MSI rooms destroyed by fire caused by 
molotovs. 

3 Florence: Reparti Comunisti di Combattimento 
claim three actions against local Christian Democrats, 
all bomb attacks against premises. 

7 Rome: High explosive charge goes off in the private 
office of Minister for Home Affairs, Cossiga. Lotta 
Armata per il Comunismo claim the action. 

19 Genoa: A Red Brigades cell burns four cars: two 
belonging to industrialists, and two belonging to 
Christian Democrat town councillors. 

20 Turin: Ten pistol shots are fired by a commando at 
a Christian Democrat councillor, but the shots miss 
their target. 

28 Milan: Car belonging to a regional councillor is 
burned — action claimed by the Red Brigades. 

May 

l Ve rona: Molotov thrown against Christian Democrat 
premises. 

4 San Benedetto del Trento: A Red Brigades cell claims 
the burning of regional councillor’s car. 

27 Milan: Three cars belonging to Comunione e Liber- 
azione members burned by “a group of comrades.” 

June 

20 Cagliari: A group of comrades from the ‘autono- 
mists’ beat up a few of the CP reactionaries in front of 
72 



the University. 

30 Rome: The houses of two fascists are the targets of 
molotovs thrown during the night. Minister of the 
treasury’s car also goes up in flames. A leaflet claiming 
these actions is signed young proletarians. 

July 

1 1 Genoa: One of the most important figures among 
the local Christian Democrats is shot in the arms and 
legs by the Red Brigades. 

1 1 Rome: Mario Perlini of Comunione e Liberazione 
receives three pistol shots in the legs from the Red 
Brigades. 

13 Turin: A Christian Democrat councillor is shot in 
the legs by the Red Brigades. 

October 

5 Nuoro: During the night the town hall is broken 
into and an ass, stolen from a neighbouring courtyard, 
is tied to the mayor’s desk. 

13 Rome: A group of comrades break into a Chris- 
tian Democrat party premises and take away files and 
other papers. 

23 Milan: A Christian Democrat councillor is lamed 
by the Red Brigades. Action is claimed in the name 
of the RAF comrades. 

24 Trieste: Attacks against Christian Democrat rooms 
and against the home of a fascist councillor, claimed 
by Ronda Proletaria. 

25 Turin: Another Christian Democrat worthy is 
politicians and party headquarters 



lamed by the Red Brigades. 

26 Massa: Christian Democrat official’s car burned. 

26 Rome: Cars belonging to various Christian Demo- 
crats in the city burned. 

27 Genoa: Another five Christian Democrats’ cars 
burned. 

November 

2 Rome: A Christian Democrat director and supporter 
of the iron fist against ‘terrorism’ is killed by thirteen 
shots from the Red Brigades 

12 Aquila: Unita comunista close a Christian Demo- 
crat lair by fire. 

14 Rome: Molotov attack against fascist den in the 
Appio quarter. 

December 

6 Bergamo: Squadre Operaie Armate claim attacks 
against Euroschool and a Christian Democrat premises. 
12 Rome: Bomb devastates lair of fascists belonging to 
Democrazia nazionale. 

12 Trento: Bomb attack against Tecnofin, meeting 
place for Christian Democrat and Communist Party 
members. Claimed by Prima Linea. 

1 7 Reggio Emilia: Christian Democrat premises bombed. 
Police arrest a member of Gymnasio Nihilista. 

20 Rome: Nuclei Armate Territorial destroy the pow- 
erful motorbike of one of the CP strong-arm boys. 

2 1 Rome: Cars of three Christian Democrat members 
go up in flames — claimed in a telephone call by Red 
74 



Brigades. 

25 Como: Bomb explodes in the night in front of MSI 
premises. 

3 1 Bolzano: Christian Democrat provincial headquar- 
ters set afire. 

1978 January 

/ Trento: Ronde Proletarie claim the bombing of Com- 
munist Party provincial federation. 

/ Lamezia Terme: Car of a MSI provincial councillor 
goes up in flames. A leaflet signed Red Brigades claims 
the action. 

3 Padova: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comunismo 
attack seven Christian Democrat premises in protest 
against the sentences of two comrades in Padova courts. 
5 Cagliari: A molotov explodes against a Christian 
Democrat premises. 

7 Rome: Many comrades have been attacked and 
wounded by fascists who are, as always, protected by 
the police. This evening, a group of comrades bring 
to justice two fascist thugs who were leaving their lair, 
arms in hand, to begin new attacks. A third fascist is 
killed by carabinieri during crossfire in front of the 
same premises. The execution of the two fascists is 
claimed by Nuclei Armati per il Contropotere Terri- 
toriale. 

8 Bari: Attempts made to burn two MSI premises. 

10 Luras: Christian Democrat mayor’s car explodes, 
politicians and party headquarters 



10 Trieste: Two molotovs explode against provincial 
Christian Democrat headquarters. One comrade is ar- 
rested but others manage to free him. 

12 Cagliari: Explosion in front of Christian Democrat 
headquarters — Ronda Proletaria. 

12 Potenza: Headquarters of the provincial Christian 
Democrat committee are ransacked and set fire to. 

12 Naples: A homemade bomb explodes in front of 
MSI premises. 

1 8 Genoa: A Red Brigades cell wounds member of the 
CP provincial committee and director of a business 
school Professor Filippo Peschiera in the legs. 

28 Rome: Nuclei CombattentiTerritoriali burn the car 
belonging to a CP lawyer known for his work on the 
party’s dossier against political violence. 

30 Naples: Bomb attacks against three Christian Dem- 
ocrat premises. 

February 

12 Erma: Three molotovs explode against MSI prem- 
ises the day after Almirante’s visit. 

16 Portici: Christian Democrat police chief’s car de- 
stroyed by molotovs. 

24 Rome: Christian Democrat premises burned. 

26 Brescia: Rivoluzionari Anti-imperialisti Comunisti 
attack the building housing the offices of a Christian 
Democrat senator and the provincial secretary of the 
same party. 

26 Ostia: A known local fascist’s car goes up in smoke 

76 



during the night. 

28 Bologna:Duringthe night five Christian Democrat 
area offices are burned, as well as a Comunione e 
Liberazione bookshop. 

March 

3 Cerignola: Explosion at a villa being built by a local 
Christian Democrat party official. 

5 Rome: Car belonging to magistrate and president of 
the Technical Institute is burned. 

5 Ribera: Bomb against MSI premises. 

6 Cinciello: Organizzazione Proletaria per il Comu- 
nismo attack Comunione e Liberazione spokesman. 

7 Arlww: Burning of the house and car belonging to a 
paediatrician, one of the protagonists in the infamous 
anti-abortion movement. 

8 Cavarzere: Incediary bomb against Christian Demo- 
crat headquarters. 

/ 0 Rome: Two bombs during the night — the first at 
the Italian Association gymnasium, the other at a 
Christian Democrat party office. 

10 Rome: Nucleo Comunista Armato Francesco Lo 
Russo blows up two Christian Democrat premises, 
and two carabinieri barracks. 

1 0 Ravenna: Failed bomb attack on Christian Demo- 
crat party premises. 

10 Messina: A molotov is thrown against the Christian 
Democrat premises. 

14 Milan: Incendiary bomb against the Don Minzoni 
politiciansand party headquarters 



cultural centre. 

14 San Benedetto del Trento: A bar belonging to a 
Christian Democrat councillor is set on fire. 

16 Rome: At 9.30 am, in via Fani, a Red Brigades 
column attack the car escort of Christian Democrat 
leader Aldo Moro.They eliminate five policemen and 
kidnap the Christian Democrat president. The same 
morning parliament concedes the first government 
that includes Communist Party votes. 

April 

7 Rome: During the nightTNT explosions take place 
in front of two Christian Democrat premises. 

7 Turin: Cars belonging to two Christian Democrat 
politicians are burned in an action claimed by the 
Red Brigades. 

1 4 Venice: TNT against two Christian Democrat party 
offices, and pistol shots against the home of a Chris- 
tian Democrat provincial councillor, claimed by Pro- 
letari Comunisti Organizzati. 

15 Genoa: Red Brigades claim the burning of three 
cars belonging to Christian Democrat members. 

22 Omni: The car of Christian Democrat councillor 
is blown up. 

25 Rome: A Christian Democrat leading councillor 
mixed up in affairs of the Mafia, is shot in the legs by 
the Red Brigades. 

25 Cormano: Christian Democrat party premises al- 
most completely destroyed in an explosion. 

78 



29 Cagliari: Bomb during the night against Christian 
Democrat rooms. 

May 

/ Ostia. ’Cars belonging to two local fascists are burned. 
1 Sassari: Bomb attack against provincial headquarters 
of the Italian Liberal Party. 

4 Rome: Fornrazioni Proletarie Armate plunder a ‘so- 
cial promotion centre’ run by Christian Democrats. 

9 Rome: At 13.30, a few yards from the Christian 
Democrat and Communist Party offices in via Caeta- 
ni, the body of Aldo Moro is found in the boot of a 
Renault car, following a telephone communication. 
He had been shot eleven times. The unions call an- 
other general strike. The family refuse a State funeral. 

10 Santa Sofia: A comrade is arrested following a 
bomb attack against a Christian Democrat office. 

10 Trapani: The flat belonging to Christian Democrat 
party chairman of public works is burned. 

12 Milan:iTed Brigades Walter Alesia Column lame a 
Christian Democrat director. 

12 Pisa: An incendiary bomb goes off under the car of 
a Christian Democrat provincial secretary. 

13 Ravenna: Christian Democrat premises and a cath- 
olic radio station destroyed by fire. 

21 Asti: Formazioni Combattenti Comuniste and 
Prima Linea claim a bomb attack against the provin- 
cial headquarters of the Christian Democrats. 

2 1 Ostia: Bomb at local MSI party offices, 
politicians and party headquarters 



27 Rome: Explosion at a Christian Democrat centre, 
claimed by Formazioni Armate Proletarie. 

June 

2 Rome: Bombing of three Christian Democrat party 
offices. 

3 Venice: Proletari Comunisti Organizzati claim the 
bombing of the homes of three fascists, members of 
Fronte della Gioventu. 

8 Turin: Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento wound 
doctor Giacomo Ferrero with pistol shots. Fie is a 
known fascist, who in the past has been sentenced 
for usury. 

/ 6 Palermo: Bomb against ACLI headquarters. 

16 Bologna: Cellule Comuniste Combattenti set fire 
to two Christian Democrats’ cars. 

18 Rozzano: Failed incendiary attack against Chris- 
tian Democrat premises. 

1 9 Aosta: A nucleus for direct attack of Azione Riv 
oluzionaria explode a bomb in the regional offices of 
the Christian Democrats. 

25Tctnpio Pausania: Dynamite attack against the home 
of Christian Democrat mayor ofAglientu. 

25 Trieste: Bomb attack on the home of Chris- 
tian Democrat vice-president of the regional junta. 
Claimed by Nuclei Comunisti per Contropotere. 

29 Milan: Cinema Fontana is burned. It served as a 
meeting place for Comunione e Liberazione. 


80 



July 

/ Venice: Incendiary attack devastates headquarters of 
Acli di Mirano, an organisation responsible for reduc- 
ing employment in hospitals. 

15 Turin: Piedmont region computer centre is set fire 
to by Prirna Linea, and computers are destroyed. 

15 Padova: Ronde Armate Proletarie destroy a car be- 
longing to university lecturer Pietro Dlogu. 

15 Treviso: Ronde Armate Proletarie burn down the 
door of a university professor’s house. 

/ 9 Rome: Christian Democrat councillor’s car burned. 
28 Rome: Dynamite attack against Christian Demo- 
crat party premises. 

September 

26 Rome: Bombing of two notorious fascist lairs: the 
restaurant II Fungo and the Hotel Satellite in Ostia. 
October 

7 Trento: Incendiary attack against office of Christian 
Democrat deputy and vice-president of a parliamen- 
tary commission. 

12 Rome: Three MSI party premises are attacked with 
bombs, as is the shop of a well-known fascist. 

14 Lucca: Lotta Arnrata per il Comunismo claim 
the dynamite attack against the villa belonging to a 
Christian Democrat parliamentarian. 

14 Marano Vicentino: Molotov thrown against local 
Christian Democrat headquarters. 

20 Padova: Socialist Party councillor and university 
politicians and party headquarters 



director is wounded by gun shots fired by two com- 
rades of Fronte Combattente Conrunista. 

26 Bologna: Nuclei Sconvolti per la Sovversione Ur- 
bana explode two bombs against the home of the 
mayor Zangheri. 

27 Naples: A group of “organised unemployed work- 
ers” occupy the party offices of the Communist Party 
in protest against the politics of the Left junta. 

Comunione E Liberazione — a catholic fascist organisa- 
tion, predominantly composed of students and young 
catholics. Although it is not a party, its organisational 
form is that of the tightly centralised Stalinist type. 
Democrazia Cristiana (Christian Democrats) — a Cen- 
tre party of catholic inspiration. It confirmed its place 
as the major party in Italy in the recent elections. 
Partito Comunista (Communist Party) is the largest 
Communist Party in Western Europe. In March 1978 
their votes were conceded by parliament to support the 
Christian Democrats in government, and today they 
have surpassed the latter in their policies on repression. 
This party is a vital instrument for Italian capitalism s 
transition to a social democratic model. However, they 
showed considerable losses in recent elections. 

MSI — Movimento Sociale Italiano 

Right-wing party carrying on the fascist tradition 
PLI — Partito Liberate Italiano 
Italian Liberal Party, moderate Rightwing party 

82 



ACLI — Associazione Cattolica Lavoratore I tali cine 
Catholic Workers’ Association 
PSDI — Partito Socialista Democratica Italiano 

moderate leftwing party, a breakaway from the So- 
cialist Party 

CGIL — Confederazione Generate Italiana Del Lavoro 
left wing union, dominated by the Communist 
party, with a Socialist minority 
CISL — Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori 
confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions, dominat- 
ed by the Christian Democrats. 

UIL — Unione Italiana Lavoratori 
smallest of the three largest federations, dominated 
by the Socialists. 

CISNAL 

4th Confederation after the CGIL, CISL and UIL. 
Has a publicly acclaimed affinity with the neo-fas- 
cist national party, the MSI. 

Trades Unions 

1976 March 

17 Turin: At the FIAT sabotage carried out by the 
workers in the paint department is disclaimed by the 
union bureaucrats as the work of of provocateurs. The 
area secretary of the CGIL has to face ten thousand 
workers shouting insults and calling for direct action. 

April 

26 Cassino: FIAT workers refuse to wait until 1978 to 
trades unions 



have half an hour for lunch, and take it directly. They 
reduce the working day by half an hour themselves 
and if the bus driver refuses to leave, we will take his place, 
if no one is able to drive the bus, we’ll tear it apart. 

28 Genoa: Red Brigades break into Intersind (trade 
union confederation) offices, chain up employees and 
take away files. 

May 

3 Turin: Wrath against the unions’ contract. Workers at 
the FIAT Rivalta paint shop and Mirafiori leave work 
half an hour early. 

5 Turin: The union bureaucrat who has come to speak 
of the agreement reached at Mirafiori andTrentin is 
assailed with oranges and bolts. Only 500-600 work- 
ers out of 20,000 turn up at the meeting. 

June 

4 Cassino: Following the wounding of a FIAT man- 
ager an unsigned leaflet was found: with today’s warning 
we want to remind those personages of a few facts that the 
workers have all carefully noted: Pettinotti (the victim) con- 
trols the network offascists of the CISNAL, always active in 
spying on comrades who are in the front line of the struggle... 

November 

16 Sassari: Two comrades are arrested, accused of 
throwing nrolotovs against the CISNAL offices. 

1977 June 

30 Palermo: Intersind offices broken into by four com- 
84 



rades.They lock the employees in the toilet and place 
a bomb which destroys the offices. Action claimed by 
Unitek Combattenti Comunisti. 

December 

24 Sanremo: During an anti-Christmas demonstration, 
comrades devastate the headquarters of the CISNAL, 
throwing furniture and documents into the street. 
Fifteen people are arrested. 

October 

17: Wild strikes in the Italian hospitals against the 
unions’ management of the contract, and putting for- 
ward their own claims. In Naples, Florence, Palermo, 
and Milan the hospital workers have been fighting 
for days. The army is brought in to the Polyclinico in 
Rome to serve patients’ meals. 

November 

30 Milan: a group of workers of the Comitato di Lotta 
dell’Unidal (autonomous group in the Motta Alle- 
magna cake factory) break into a meeting between 
trade union leaders and directors, beat up a CGIL bu- 
reaucrat and one of the factory directors. The police 
intervene and workers in all departments go on strike. 


Factories and the Industrial Hierarchy 

1976 March 

/ / Turin: Sabotage by workers at the FIAT where they 
mix paint colours, causing damage and loss of time. At- 
factories and the industrial hierarchy 



tempts by union bureaucrats to pass this off a simple 
‘mistake’ are publicly denounced by the workers. 

26 Bergamo: Three people shoot Philco Bosch man- 
ager outside the factory and leave a communique de- 
nouncing his part in restructuring the factory — sack- 
ing militants and increasing exploitation. Signed by 
Lotta Armata per ll Comunismo. 

26 Genoa: A Standa superstore depot destroyed by fire, 
after telephone warning. 

26 Rivalat: FIAT workers block gates refusing entry 
to goods and managers. Three foremens’ cars burned 
during the night. 

27 Turin: Sabotage in the upholstery dept, at FIAT 
Mirafiori. Material ready for assembly lines is burned. 

April 

2 Crescenzago: Chief security guard of Magneti 
Marelli shot in the legs for spying on and denounc- 
ing workers. Communique left by an armed com- 
munist commando. 

3 Turin: A workshop at the FIAT Mirafiori is com- 
pletely destroyed by fire. “An armed nucleus has de- 
stroyed some of the profit of Agnelli’s imperialist mul- 
tinational. This is only the beginning” is the message 
phoned to ANSA news agency. 

8 Milan: A building of the Motta cake factory is de- 
stroyed by fire. 

1 0 Turin: Two Standa warehouses and a large clothing 
depot burned. 

86 



13 Turin: Eight shots fired at a FIAT foreman, claimed 
by Red Brigades who also destroy the cars belonging 
to two others. 

1 4 Rivalta: Fire in the FIAT tyre depot. The action is 
criticised by the Red Brigades who issue a statement 
saying they are against the destruction of goods. 

14 Florence: Two Texaco offices burnt — action claimed 
by Formazione Comuniste Armate. 

1 1 Turin: FIAT Mirafiori — a car is set fire to in the 
lubrication tunnel, causing damage to other cars and 
to the tunnel itself. 

1 6 Porto Marghera: Red Brigades claim destruction of 
Montedison technician’s car. 

16 Rome: A Standa depot is burned, claimed by 
Squadra d'Azione Cagol. 

21 Rome: President of an oil tanker company shot in 
legs by Formazione Comuniste Armate. 

21 Brescia: Red Brigades raid Industrial Association 
headquarters and take away files. 

May 

7 Turin: A FIAT goods store is burned. 

10 Rome: Explosion in front of German travel agency, 
linked to the murder of Ulrike Meinhof in her prison 
cell. 

July 

20 Rome: Syrian airline offices destroyed by explosion: 
link to massacres carried out by that government in 
the Lebanon. 

factories andthe industrial hierarchy 



September 

7 7 Rome: Brazilian airline company bombed. Molo- 
tovs thrown at the American Honeywell offices and a 
Israeli travel agency. 

7 7 Turin: Two branches of Banca Commerciale at- 
tacked by Combattenti Armati per il Comunismo in 
protest against their involvement in Pinochet regime. 
22 Rome: Two explosions: one damages shop of Ira- 
nian with CIA connections, the other is against West- 
inghouse, American industrial group. 

26 Rome: Zionist and American objectives struck be- 
fore and after demonstration in solidarity with Pales- 
tinian resistance in the Lebanon. Explosion destroys 
goods depot owned by Israeli ex-ambassador to Italy; 
Molotovs against American Joint; two Bank of Amer- 
ica branches assailed by molotovs and a goods depot 
of ITT affiliate Avis is bombed. 

October 

7 Milan: Large group of comrades enter and devastate 
South African Consulate. 

6 Turin: Italian International Computers broken into 
by three armed men and a woman. They set fire to 
offices after getting staff to leave premises. 

75 Milan: Workers of Motta cake factory who face 
twenty eight hundred redundancies, chase director in 
charge of restructuring out of the factory. 

20 Milan: Upim store plundered; pharmaceutical in- 
stitute De Angeli is attacked and many machines de- 
88 



stroyed. 

22 Turin: Four supervisors at the FIAT find their cars 
burnt in the street. 

25 Genoa: Red Brigades claim the burning of cars be- 
longing to directors ofAsgen, Intersider and Ansaldo. 
27 Avellino: Two armed cells attack and destroy head- 
quarters of Unione Industrial Irpini. 

November 

8 Naples: Italsider foreman’s car burned. 

12 Milan: Raid on headquarters of Assofarma (phar- 
maceutical industrial association) by Unita Comu- 
niste Combattente, who take away card-index, money, 
and directors wallet. 

1 6 Sesto San Giovanni: Red Brigades cell breaks into 
directors’ car park, destroys two cars and damages fif- 
teen others. 

30 Turin: Directors’ offices of FIAT Turin group bro- 
ken into by a Prima Linea commando. Secret files 
and indexes are taken away. 

December 

3 Monzesi: At the opening of industrial association 
headquarters a Prima Linea commando break in and 
start a fire which destroys three offices. 

15 Florence: Six house-letting agencies hit by explosions 
claimed by Reparti Comunisti di Combattimento. 

19 Milan: Fornrazione Combattente break into 
Montedison offices, immobilise staff, and damage 
electronic apparatus, 
factories and the industrial hierarchy 



22 Rome: Eleven central telephone lines in residential 
areas burned in relation to recent increases in charges. 


1 977 January 

20 Genoa: Two local industrialists’ cars destroyed by 
fire, claimed by the Red Brigades. 

29 Milan: Electroware domestic appliances firm bro- 
ken into and devastated by molotovs. Action claimed 
by ‘group of young proletarians’ in protest against ex- 
ploitation of the young work force for cheap labour. 
February 

1 Turin: Face Standard (ITT subsidiary) headquarters 
under construction damaged by explosives. 

4 Turin: Prima Linea Commandos raid offices of As- 
sociation of Light Industry, then set fire to them. 

4 Milan: An ‘armed group of workers’ breaks into the 
offices of Pubblilabor (a job agency), immobilises staff, 
and takes away files and money. 

8 Turin: Cars belonging to directors of Aeritalia (air- 
line company) destroyed by fire. 

10 Rome: Electrolux and Standastores plundered. 
February 

/ 8 Turin: Two FIAT managers shot in the legs by Red 
Brigades commando. 

March 

2 Turin: Tens of millions of lire damage caused by fire 
in the Mirafiori FIAT. 

10 Reggio Calabria: Unita Combattenti Comuniste 
90 



commandos break into Reggio Industrial Confed- 
eration headquarters and remove documents. 

/ / Bologna: Red Brigades cell breaks into office of 
Gabetti (construction company) and takes away files 
and documents. 

18 Milan: Marelli headquarters broken into by 11 
comrades who left from a march. They remove wal- 
lets from those present and set fire to the building. 

24 Piedimonte S. Gennaro: Electric generator for FIAT 
supply destroyed by bomb. 

29 Rome: General Manager of Poligrafico di Stato 
(State printing, prints banknotes) shot in the legs. 

April 

15 Reggio Calabria: Liquid Chemical plant broken into 
by a commando who immobilise guards, damage a 
computer and the department which produces bio- 
proteins. Leaflet left by Unita Comuniste Combattente 

19 Genoa: Red Brigades cell burn four cars belonging 
to industrialists and Christian Democrat politicians. 

21 Milan: Computer destroyed by a Gruppo Com- 
battente Comuniste cell in University Bocconi. The 
University is one of the centres most advanced in the 
preparation of anti-worker techniques. 

22 Turin: FIAT foreman shot in the legs by Red Bri- 
gades commando. 

30 Turin: At 2 am, a bomb explodes at the Facis cloth- 
ing factory, at 5 am, another explodes in front of 
Michelin, then the employment offices and the tele- 
factoriesandthe industrial hierarchy 



phone exchange, and finally an incendiary device is 
thrown against the heating plant of a factory infa- 
mous for its exploitation of women and children in 
the production of biro pens. 

30 Padova: RTR television company and Pinton In- 
dustrial Electror is hit by molotovs and cars are set 
alight. 

30 Genoa: Kidnappers of the president of FIAT- 
France demand 25 billion lira, and the liberation of 
political prisoners. 

May 

16 Palermo: Dynamite attack against the SIP (tele- 
phone co.) offices. 

18 Bologna: Vice-president of confederation of indus- 
try finds his car burnt to the ground. 

18 Alcanto: At a FIAT dealers two transporters and a 
number of cars are damaged. 

18 Syracuse: Car of a local industrialist is burned. 

18 Palermo: Building constructor’s villa partly de- 
stroyed by dynamite. 

18 Milan: ISEO (society for managerial training) 
headquarters broken into by Prima Linea comman- 
dos. 

19 Turin: Explosion at headquarters of Pia S. Paolo 
(Vatican Publishers). 

19 Florence: A nucleus of four comrades wreck the of- 
fices of Cicasc business consultants. 

26 Florence: A ‘proletarian combatent cell’ break into 
92 



and damage electricity showroom. 

June 

8 Milan: BMW showroom assailed by molotovs, 
claimed by Grupp Ulrike Meinhof. 

9 Milan: A foreman at the Breda armaments fac- 
tory is shot in the legs by the Red Brigades Walter 
Alesia’commando. 

10 Rome: Three men and a woman completely de- 
stroy the computer belonging to the faculty coordi- 
nating centre at the city university. 

13 Milan: A Prima Linea commando break into and 
remove documents from the Federation of Industrial 
Management. 

1 7 Genoa: A transporter belonging to IMPA (a factory 
that produces wrapping material, which has just made 
half its employees redundant) is destroyed by fire. 

19 Milan: A Prima Linea cell claim responsibility for 
attacks against the multinationals SIT Seinrens and 
Magneti Marelli. 

20 Prato: About twenty cars destroyed and as many 
damaged by Prima Linea. 

2 / Rome: A commando of three women shoot the 
president of the Faculty of Business Economics. 
Claimed by the Red Brigades. 

22 Pistoia: A Breda executive is shot in the legs by 
Prima Linea. 

27 Pomilliano: Combatant Workers for Communism 
shoot an Alfa Romeo foreman in the legs, 
factories andthe industrial hierarchy 



28 Genoa: The Red Brigades fire four shots into the 
legs of an Ansaldo engineer. 

30 Turin: A FIAT manager is shot in the legs and 
chest — action claimed by the Red Brigades. 

30 Milan: A manager of OM (transporters) is shot in 
the legs by the Red Brigades. 

30 Pordenone: Three railwagons containing Zanussi 
domestic appliances blown up. Prima Linea claim 
the action. Unions call a strike of solidarity with the 
bosses. 

30 Bologna: Unexploded bomb found at entrance to 
industrial confederation offices. 

July 

29 Milan: Swissair offices badly damaged by an explo- 
sion. A leaflet is left, signed by Prima Linea, denounc- 
ing that country’s hospitality to the multinationals of 
exploitation and death, and the holding of comrade 
Petra Krause in prison. 

August 

2 Turin: Ipca dye factory notorious for the number of 
its workers who have died of cancer of the bladder, is 
damaged by two bombs signed ‘Armed Nucleus for 
Revolutionary Action’. 

6 Milan: The offices of ANIC are hit by an explosion 
claimed by ‘Revolutionary Proletarian Bands’, fol- 
lowing the deaths of two workers. 

28 Naples: Three bombs explode in front of Roche 
Pharmaceuticals. Action claimed by an Unita Comu- 
94 



nista Territoriale. 


September 

14 Novara: A 41 -year-old worker stabs his boss in the 
back and disappears. 

19 Taranto: Over 80 billion lire damage to an Italsider 
furnace caused by workers. 

19 Milan: In an action of propaganda against the ris- 
ing cost of living, a libertarian group give out leaflets 
and smash ticket machines on 77 buses. Passengers 
support the action. 

22 Turin: Fire at FIAT Mirafiori claimed by workers’ 
cell Tonino Micciche, a comrade from Lotta Conti- 
nua was killed there by a night guard some time ago. 
25 Bologna: On the last night of a massive meeting 
against repression, where around 50,000 comrades 
have assembled from all over Italy, an explosion dam- 
ages the window of a Volkswagen showroom. Action 
claimed by Azione Rivoluzionaria. 

29 Florence: Super, Galardi, and American Agency (all 
property speculators), raided and burned. Actions 
claimed by Squadre Proletariat Combattenti. 

October 

18 Turin: Prima Linea raid the Association of Industri- 
al Directors, and take away documents and files. They 
explode two molotovs before leaving. 

1 8 Florence: Prima Linea break into the area union of- 
fices and take away files on employees. 

20: In protest against the assassinations in Stammheim 
factoriesandthe industrial hierarchy 



and Mogadishu, there are bomb attacks against Ger- 
man car dealers and TIR lorries in many cities. 

21 Trento: On the walls ‘10, 100, 1,000 Schleyers’; 
Barricades in Milan against the police; molotovs in 
Vicenza against German car dealer. Attacks in various 
other cities. 

22 Milan, Diano Marina, Imperia, Bolzano, Cagliari, Sas- 
sari, Reggie Emilia, Naples: Some of the places where 
actions continue against German car showrooms and 
other agencies. 

22 Milan: Molotovs against the Mercedes belonging 
the consul, and against the Consulate of Ecuador to 
draw attention to the dozens and dozens of workers 
assassinated by the army of that country. ATM and 
TWA also hit. 

23 Brescia: A policeman is wounded trying to save a 
Mercedes dealer from an attack. Other actions against 
German interests continue in other cities. 

24 Palermo: During demonstrations of protest against 
Stammheim and Mogadishu, aVolkwagen showroom 
and a Sicilian cement works are bombed. 

25: Another day of actions against German interests 
in many cities. 

26 Rome: Opel, General Motors and Siemans dealers 
bombed during the night. 

26 Pistoia: Bomb attack at BMW showroom. 

29 Brescia: Ream and a branch of A.G.E.-Telefunken 
bombed. 

96 



30Turin: Revolutionary Group Andreas Baader claim 
bombing of Mercedes showroom. 

30 Milan: Two nrolotovs against Mercedes showroom. 

November 

4 Padova: House letting agency Stinra is destroyed by 
bomb attack. 

8 Milan: A manager at the assembly dept of Alfa Ro- 
meo is lamed by the Red Brigades. 

8 Florence: Hoechst Italia pharmaceutical company 
(affiliate of German company) is bombed. 

8 Cagliari: Attacks against Volkswagen, Auto Union 
and Porsche. 

10 Turin: A work study offices is lamed by the Red 
Brigades. 

12 Bologna, Cagliari and Turin: Anti-German attacks 
continue. 

14 Genoa: Ronda Proletaria claim bomb attack on an 
Opel agency. 

16 S. Benedetto del Trento: Lotta Armata per il Comu- 
nismo claim attack against BMW. 

1 1 Genoa: An Ansaldo manager assailed by seven bul- 
lets, claimed by Red Brigades. 

29 Genoa . 'Cars of two directors at Italsider are burnt — 
claimed by Red Brigades. 

December 

5 Turin: An ‘armed communist cell’ bombs the uphol- 
stery deptartment of FIAT Mirafiori. 

5 Genoa: An armed communist cell claims action 
factories andthe industrial hierarchy 



against German trade centre. 

6 Bergamo: Squadre Armate Operaie claim attack 
against Euroschool. 

12 Milan: Prima Linea claim dynamite attack during 
night against Credito S. Paolo bank (bank of the Vati- 
can). 

17 Turin: Explosion blasts Alfa Romeo showroom. 
Many cars damaged. 

1978 January 

4 Cassino: Head of private police at the FIAT brought 
to justice by Operaie Armate per il Comunismo: An- 
other of Agnelli’s police is wounded at the same time. 
The unions call the usual strike against terrorism — 2.35 
per cent adhere, i.e. thirty workers out of 1,500. 

9 Taranto: Sabotage at Italsider. Traces of explosive 
material found in the trucks that link the centre to 
the port. 

10 Twin: Unita Comuniste Combattenti explode a 
bomb outside the house of second in charge of secu- 
rity guards of the FIAT-OM. A Red Brigades com- 
mando wound a foreman at the FIAT-Mirafiori in the 
legs and arms. 

10 Zingonia: Squadre Operaie Armate set fire to the 
goods depot of Comet domestic appliances against po- 
litical sackings and restructuring at the Philco Ritalco. 

10 hnperia: Twelve molotovs thrown against the luxu- 
rious villa belonging to a local industrialist. 

98 



/ 3 Rome: The Red Brigades kneecap the area manager 
of the SIP. 

24 Milan: Chief of trade union relations at the SIT- 
Siemens wounded by Red Brigades. 

24 Laminate: General manager of Nuova Innocenti 
pulls a gun on a group of workers who break into his 
office. The men disarm him and teach him a lesson in 
spite of efforts of members of the Factory Council to 
protect him. 

28 Turin: Workers occupying the Accarini factory and 
who have been evicted by the police before, move to 
direct action. Pistol shots ring out against a foreman’s 
house during the night. Next day one of the man- 
agers is encircled and only freed after having been 
taught a lesson. 

30 Turin: Fire at the CEAT (tyres) causing millions of 
lira damage. 

31 Padova: Workers’ Organisation for Communism 
claim many explosions in the area against factories and 
the homes of industrialists. 

31 Milan: Squadre Armate Operaie shoot the owner of 
a print shop in the legs. Fie was responsible for shoot- 
ing a trade unionist five years before. 

February 

l Bologna: Squadre Armate Operaie claim in attack 
against the home of a small industrialist. 

1 Sassari: Millions of lire damage to a FIAT subsidiary 
as a result of four molotovs. 
factories and the industrial hierarchy 



2 Cosenza: A group Lotta Armata per il Comunis- 
mo break into the Savings Bank computer centre 
and detonate an explosive charge causing irreparable 
damage to machines and tape archives. 

16 Milan: Reparti Operai Combattenti Comunisti 
wound an Alfa Romeo executive in the legs. He was 
responsible for the employment of invalid and handi- 
capped employees. 

1 6 Rome: To attack State organisms means to attack the 
State — Ronde Proletarie in leaflet claiming an explo- 
sion against the technical office of the SIP (telephone). 
1 9 Turin: Plastic explosive attack against FIAT agent. 
21 Turin: A paper bomb explodes inside the FIAT at 
Carmagnola. 

24 Trieste: A group of four comrades raid the industri- 
al confederation headquarters and a property agency. 
A house belongs to who lines in it. 

21 Naples: Ten molotovs thrown against the offices of 
Iran Air offices. 

March 

1 Turin: An electricity cable supplying the FIAT Mira- 
fiori is hit by two explosive charges. 

1 Milan: SPED electronic centre is put out of use 
by four comrades who pour sulphuric acid over the 
machines. 

5 Modena: A paper bomb explodes in the SPE (adver- 
tising agency) offices. 

7 Milan: Fire bomb against the Nuova Innocenti, Nu- 

100 



clei Operai Armati.. 

72 Siena: Gruppi Armati per il Comunismo claim an 
attack against Unipol insurance. Organizazzioni Op- 
eraie per il Comunismo strike the homes of the di- 
rector and an executive of Eurofur tur factory. 

22 Modena, Parma, Reggio Emilia: Various bomb attacks 
claimed by Nuclei Armati delle Cellule Combattenti. 
22 Milan: Incendiary bomb against two SIP trans- 
porters. 

22 Turin: Nuclei Proletari Comunisti destroy the car 
of a director of Accarini. The company had been at 
the centre of a hard struggle against redundancies. 

April 

6 Rome: A series of bombings at a BMW showroom, 
a Simca showroom, and a branch of Banco di Roma. 

7 Genoa: Red Brigades shoot president of local indus- 
try in the legs. 

7 7 Siena: Nucleo Armato Comunista causes hundreds 
of nnllions of lira of damage by setting fire to an UPIM 
supermarket. 

13 Rome: Nine molotovs thrown against the headquar- 
ters of the national association of building constructors. 
19 Turin: Upholstery department at FIAT Mirafiori set 
afire, causing millions of lire damage. 

27 Milan: Prima Linea raid a business consultant’s 
agency. 

22 Padova: A university lecturer who is also president 
of the publishers Gazzetino, and director of a bank, is 
factories and the industrial hierarchy 



shot in the legs by Nucelo Combattenti per il Comu- 
nismo. 

23 Milan: Proletari Comunsti per il Contropotere reply 
to the introduction of Saturday work at Alfa Romeo by 
bombing five showrooms, damaging many cars. 

27 Turin: One of the FIAT Mirafiori managers is 
lamed by a Red Brigades nucleus. 

29 Arezzo: A fire is started in a department of the Stan- 
da store. 

29 Rowe: Two incendiary bombs explode against the 
offices of Sarom (petrol company) and the canteen of 
the Feder consortium. 

30: In response to Saturday overtime at Alfa Romeo — 
Rome: Squadre Armate Operaie blow up four show- 
room windows; Naples : Unita Comuniste Armate set 
fire to a number of cars at Alfa Romeo; Turin: Nuclei 
Operai Comunisti attack three car dealers’ showrooms; 
Padova: fire damage to spare parts department of Alfa 
Romeo by Proletari Comunisti Organizzati. 

May 

l Padova: Gruppo comunista organizzato claim three 
bombings in the province, one against an industrial- 
ist’s car, one at a goods depot and one at the home 
of a fascist. 

3 Padova: Squadre Comuniste per il Contropotere 
burn the car belonging to president of ITI Gramsci 
and Communist Party Official. 

3 Florence: Prima Linea destroy many computers at 
102 



Data Management. 

4 Milan: Squadre Armate Operaie claim a heavy explo- 
sion destroying an Alfa transporter and 35 cars, includ- 
ing the car of one of the managers. The Red Brigades 
wound one of the SIT Siemens managers with nine 
pistol shots. 

4 Genoa: The Red Brigades lame a personnel officer 
at Italsider. 

6 Varese: Molotovs set fire to Alfa Romeo showroom. 

7 Trento: Sabotage of a helicopter used for finding ura- 
nium. 

8 Milan: Red Brigades destroy car belonging to trade 
union and C.P. worthy at SIT Siemens. 

10 Milan: Three pistol shots in the legs of Montedison 
official, claimed by Prima Linea. 

1 1 Milan: A director of Chemical Bank is wounded in 
the legs by Prima Linea. 

1 1 Bologna: Bomb against Alfa Romeo showroom. 

12 Segnate: Formazione Comuniste Combattenti and 
Prima Linea set fire to a depot of computer compo- 
nents at the Honeywell multinational — two billion lire 
damage. 

13 Milan: Proletari Comuniste per ll Contropotere 
bomb an electricity cable supplying Alfa Romeo. 

13 Rho: Bomb at Alfa Romeo showroom. 

1 4 Avellino: Bomb attack against firm supplying spare 
parts to Alfa Romeo. 

15 Bologna: Head of personnel dept, at Menarini 
factories and the industrial hierarchy 



wounded in various parts of the body. Claimed by 
Prima Linea. 

18 Marghera: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu- 
nismo and Proletari Comunisti Organizzati claim the 
bombing of an Alfa Romeo showroom. 

19 Trento: Pistol shots against Alfa Romeo showroom. 

1 9 Turin: Attack against a FIAT showroom. 

20 Milan: Four comrades break into an Alfa Romeo 
showroom, immobilise the guard, and explode many 
molotovs. Other attacks against Alfa showrooms in 
Rome and Bassano Del Grappa. 

22 Florence: Linea d’Azione Comuniste break into a 
house-letting agency and take away documents. 

25 Padova: Molotov thrown from a motorbike against 
a regional bank branch. 

30 Mestre: A bomb damages cars on display in FIAT 
showroom. 

June 

2 Varese: Electricity cable suppling Alfa Romeo is 
cut. Action claimed by Proletari per il Contropotere. 

3 Rome: Two attacks during the night: one destroys 
the car of the president of ITI Fremi, the other dam- 
ages Rizzoli publishing concern. 

10 Bologna: Bomb in the night against Banca del 
Monte. 

13 Carbonia: A molotov is thrown into ITI Anioy. 

15 Saronno: Motori Breda director’s car destroyed by 
fire by Squadre Combattenti Comuniste. 

104 



22 Pomigliano: Squadre Operaie lame an Alfa Romeo 
foreman. 

23 Pomigliano: Sabotage in the paint department of 
Alfa Romeo. 

26 Florence: Squadre l'roletarie raid and set fire to 
CEVA money lending agency. 

27 Cassino: Squadra Armata Operaia bomb power 
lines to the FIAT, blocking production. 

28 Milan: Molotov against an Alfa Romeo dealer. 

30 Orbassano: Nucleo Operai Comunisti set fire to a 
depot of FIAT transporters. 

30 Monza: Incendiary bomb against Alfa Romeo 
dealer. 

July 

3 Turin: Prima Linea break into the regional adminis- 
tration finance offices and set fire to them. 

8 Varese: Electricity supply line cut. 

I 1 [location missing]: Four FIAT showrooms bombed: 
Nuclei Operai Comunisti. 

12 Milan: Proletari Comunisti per il Contropotere 
bomb two FIAT showrooms. 

18 Turin: Nuclei Operai Comunisti set fire to a boat- 
train used for the transport of cars inside FIAT. 

19 Grugliasco: A Prima Linea nucleus breaks into an 
insurance office and wounds an official in the legs. 

20 Milan: One year after the death of their militant 
Romano Tognini who was killed during a weapons 
expropriation, Prima Linea explode 8 kg. ofTNT at 
factories andthe industrial hierarchy 



the Commercialists’ Union. 

22 Trento: Brigate Comuniste destroy a car belonging 
to the Commercialists’ Union. 

27Trento:The Ulrike Meinhof Brigade of Nuclei Co- 
munisti Combattenti set fire to a wood depot owned 
by the president of the Commercialists Union. 
August 

27 Taranto: Nuclei Combattenti Comunisti claim sab- 
otage at Italsider where the control panel of a turnace 
is set fire to, causing 2 billion lire’s worth of damage. 
Fifteen days before, three workers died in the same 
building. 

September 

8 Rome: Ronde Comuniste di Contropotere blow up 
the headquarters of three building societies respon- 
sible for the desperate housing situation in the city. 

28 Turin: Production manager in the paint depart- 
ment of Lancia is killed by a Red Brigades column. 

28 Milan: Azione Rivoluzionari blow up a tramline 
and an ENEL (electricity) cable supplying the tram 
network, to give an extra day’s holiday to the wage slaves 
who get up each morning to go their places of exploitation. 

29 Milan: Director of Alfa Romeo is taken by sur- 
prise by a Red Brigades commando. They tie him to 
the inside of his garage, photograph him, and fire four 
shots into his legs. 

October 

23 Milan: Sabotage to the telephone lines caused by 

106 



corrosive acid cuts off more than 2,000 telephones in 
the Rogoredo (residential) area. 

25 Rome: An Opel car showroom is bombed. 

26 Rowe: Explosions against a Volkswagen showroom 
and an electricity cable. 

27 Padova: Proletari Comunisti Organizzati claim 
eight explosions: against the State housing depart- 
ment, the SIP telephone exchange, headquarters of 
Alleanza insurance company, the town hall, university 
president’s home, the home of a SIP director, and the 
one of a Christian Democrat vice deputy mayor. At 
the same time 2,000 telephones are cut off. 

28 Milan: Nuclei Armati Antisfratto cause an explo- 
sion against the offices of RAS insurance, who own 
dozens of flats. 

November 

/ Bergamo: Proletarie Combattenti per il Comunismo 
claim explosions against two boutiques in the city. 

14 Milan: an unexploded bomb is found in the car 
park of the SIP. 

1 6 Genoa: The Red Brigades burn cars belonging to 
three Italsider and Ansaldo managers. 

2 / Bologna: Double action against Visplant, producer 
of insecticides already contested by local inhabit- 
ants. Administrative offices are raided, while the elec- 
tric cable supplying the factory is blown up. Action 
claimed by UnitaTerritoriale Comuniste. 

30 Bologna: Squadre Proletarie Combattenti explode 
factories andthe industrial hierarchy 



half a kilo ofTNT at IBM headquarters. 


State Offices 

1976 March 

25 Milan: Tax collector’s office burned. 

26 Bergamo: Violent clashes outside the Town Hall 
which is then devastated and burned. This is the day 
of the general strike called by the unions. 

July 

13 Milan: A group of comrades break into the offices 
of the Medical Association. Employees and doctors 
are tied up and various documents and gold coins 
removed. Claimed by Volante Rossa. September 

/ / Rome: Che Guevara Internationalist Brigade claim 
three actions to commemorate the Chilean coup 
d’etat: explosions at the Chilean Embassy; the Ameri- 
can Library, and the Brazilian airline, Varig. 

October 

14 Ancona: Federation of Light Industry visited by the 
Red Brigades. Five armed people tie up those present 
and take away documents. 

November 

1 1 Florence: Students devastate the university office 
responsible for the bad conditions in the refectory. 
Four comrades are arrested after being singled out by 
members of the communist party. 

December 

6 Milan: Prinra Linea raid the association for medical 
108 



insurance and take away money and fdes. 


1977 January 

6 Rome: At midnight 10 incendiary bombs are thrown 
into the car park of the Ministry for Home Affairs. 

March 

29 Rome: General manager of Poligrafico di Stato 
(State printing agency) is shot in the legs. 

May 

18 Genoa: Explosive device found under car belong- 
ing to the head gynecologist of San Martino hospital. 
/ 9 Seveso: Three young people break into the health 
inspector’s office. They search the premises, then 
shoot the doctor in charge in the legs. He is accused, 
even by the unions, of being too lenient in the case 
concerning the industrial poisoning in the area. 

19 Bologna: Employment exchange invaded by young 
people who write slogans against sweat labour all 
over the walls. 

June 

2 Turin: Prinra Linea try to paralyse the traffic of the 
province with actions against a bus station and crucial 
points of the urban network to stop people from go- 
ing to work on an abolished public holiday. 

6 Rome: Red Brigades burn registers and dossiers in 
the school Duca d’Aosta. 

24 Milan: An armed cell of Prima Linea shoot doc- 
tor Roberto Anzalone as he is leaving his consulting 
state offices 



rooms. A leaflet explains that he is responsible, as pres- 
ident of a doctors’ association and as secretary of the 
medical association, for attacks against the workers. 

July 

13 Rome: Incendiary bomb almost destroys the Fac- 
ulty of Architecture. Claimed by Studenti proletari 
comunisti. 

1 3 Trieste: About one hundred feminist comrades occu- 
py the Regional Health Department in protest about 
the way in which the abortion law is being applied. 

20 Rome: Two kilos of explosive blow up the door of 
the Town Hall. 

2 / Rome: A “communist student group for the set- 
tling of accounts” tries to wound the University rec- 
tor by shooting him, but miss their target. 

22 Turin: Feminist cell Squadre di Donne Comuniste 
set fire to and destroy the car of a gynecologist who 
refuses to do abortions. 

27 Montano: Squadre Armate Proletarie break into 
the Town Hall. They immobilise the employees, ex- 
propriate 300,000 lire, and explode a molotov on the 
premises. 

August 

7 Rimini: A group of “young organised proletarians” 
throw two molotovs against a Franciscan monastery. 

September 

1 Turin: A group of communist students sets fire to the 
entrance to the school Volta. 

110 



October 

27 Venice: Housing Department offices bombed along 
with four other State institutes in the town. Proletari 
Comunisti Organizzati. 

27 Rovigo: Pistol shots and molotovs against the home 
of the head of the municipal transport company, and 
the director of the local housing department. 
November 

5 Rome: Two women throw molotovs against an ob- 
stetrician’s study. 

1 4 Florence: Many bombings during the night — against 
the finance offices, the housing department, the town 
planning office, Director of Studies, and other similar 
attacks in Pisa and Prato. Claimed in telephone call 
by Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento. 

26 Bergamo: Nucleo Armato Proletario per il Comu- 
nismo claim bomb of Housing Department. 

1978 January 

23 Bologna: A group of comrades break into the 
Chamber of Commerce, the office of the rector of 
the University, and the headquarters of the RAI (Ra- 
dio/ television company) as part of the campaign con- 
cerning the trial for the events of March. 

29 Rome: Bomb explodes at Medical Association 
premises. 

February 

7 Venice: Nuclei Armati Comunisti raid and set fire to 
state offices 



the study of the University administrative director. 
Milan: The gates of the municipal tram depot are 
blown up as part of the struggle against fare increases 
of the previous month. 

March 

3 Turin: Incendiary attack against the headquarters 
of the Geographical Institute (an army office which 
compiles maps). 

4 Turin: Bomb attack at the home of Manni, lawyer 
and president of the Law Society. Claimed by Red 
Brigades three days before the opening of the trial of 
their historic nucleus (Curcio, Franceschini, etc.) 

8 Bologna: An Armed Feminist Nucleus place a bomb 
at a registrar’s office. 

13 Rome: Lotta Armata per il Potere Proletaria cause 
an explosion at the headquarters of the medical as- 
sociation, resulting in damage worth millions of lire. 
17 Florence: Four comrades raid the offices of the 
housing department, claimed by Azione Proletaria. 
Two molotovs are thrown against the court buildings. 
April 

10 Turin: Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento break 
into the consulting rooms of a gynaecologist accused 
by the feminist movement of being responsible for 
the death of one of his patients, chain him to the 
radiator, and shoot him in the legs. 

19 Florence: Commercial Union headquarters broken 
into by Prima Linea who set fire to the premises. 

112 



25 Trento: Volante Rossa set fire to the car belonging 
to head gynaecologist of the Santa Chiara hospital. 
May 

8 Milan: The medical director of INAM (medical in- 
surance association) is shot in the legs by Proletari 
Armati per il Comunismo. 

19 Pavia: Bomb against the Town Hall. 

19 Bologna: School bombed. 

23 Rome: Ronde Comuniste per il Contropotere Ter- 
ritoriale bomb the Italian cultural centre. 

June 

17 Trento: Attack against the Director of Education 
with a bomb made from a camping gas container. 

July 

1 Rome: Police clear part of a hospital occupied by a 
group of comrades who carried out legal abortions 
that were impossible in all the other Roman hospitals 
because of the Barons. [In Italy each hospital depart- 
ment is under the direction of a university professor 
in that field. This has given rise to an almost feudal 
situation, hence the term baroni.] 

2 Bologna: Robin Hood Nucleus for Ecological Ac- 
tion free the birds imprisoned in the cages of the park 
Villa Chigi. 

3 Imperia: President of the Medical Association’s study 
is set fire to. 

9 Padova: Proletari Comunisti claim a bomb against 
the Faculty of Political Science, closed by the presi- 
state offices 



dent in reply to the struggle against selection. 

9 Pisa: Talpe Rosse Organizzate (organised red moles) 
claim an attack against the State organism responsible 
for students’ residence and dining halls. 

Heroin Pushers 

1978 June 

/ 8 Rome: A notorious fascist belonging to the infamous 
Di Luia gang and boss of the heroin trade, is killed with 
three pistol shots. The action is claimed in a telephone 
call to Lotta Continua by Movimento Proletaria di 
Resistenza Offensivo Nucleo Antieroina. [Anti-heroin 
Nucleus of the Movement of Proletarian Resistance] 
November 

1 Milan: Proletari Armati claim the killing of Giamp- 
iero Grandi, a shopkeeper belonging to an organisa- 
tion that controls heroin traffic and the exploitation 
of prostitutes. Bomb at Mental Hygiene Centre in via 
Pancrazi, and a bar in via Degli Apuli. 

6 Milan: Bomb in a bar in via Arsia, centre of heroin 
traffic in that area. 

27 Rome: Guerriglia Comnunista ambush two 
heroin pushers; one is killed, the other wounded. 

WE CLAIM the execution of the heroin pusher and ma- 
fioso, Grandi Giampiero, and the bombings at the Centre 
for Mental Hygiene in via Pancrazi, the pushers’ lair of via 
Degli Apuli on 1.1 1.78, and the bar in via Arsia, centre of 

114 



the heroin traffic in the Quarto Oggiaro area, on 6.11.78. 
Communists are not generally against ‘drug addicts ’ like the 
bourgeoisie and the forces of repression: they are against those 
who speculate on their skins. We know that heroin is an 
answer, although illusory and disgusting, to a real need for 
change in the quality of life. Heroin is the most beautiful of 
the false consumer products that capital has invented to mys- 
tify the reality of proletarian needs. To struggle against heroin 
pushers is for every heroin addict to struggle against those who 
seem to be giving him the only possibility oj life and survival. 

It wouldn’t be habit-forming if daily life weren’t 
shit. State and God, Work and Family, are deviating 
ideologies that serve to uphold and hide an unnatural, 
lousy, criminal social order which denies in all its re- 
lationships the legitimacy of the natural needs of man, 
and upsets his relationship with reality. Destruction 
of nature (Seveso is only a tiny example of capitalist 
criminality), destruction of man as a natural being. 

What capital cannot exploit it destroys. 

With the circulation of heroin and psychotropic 
drugs they are planning the destruction of entire gener- 
ations.They destroy as the only way to evaluate the de- 
sire to live, to be well, to express the creativity which the 
young proletarians are the carriers of, in terms of profit. 
Instead of the forced suicides of the Chilean type, cap- 
ital is launching voluntary suicide on the market for 
common use. 

Heroin in itself is a false problem: it is a consumer 
heroin pushers 



product invented to suffocate the real need to change 
the quality of life, the real problem is the existence 
of the capitalist social organisation, because it bends 
towards death and the destruction of all that is hu- 
man. The drug addict becomes known and measured 
for the quantity of heroin he consumes, for the aver- 
age number of thefts he commits, and not for being 
a human being who, like others, is trying to affirm 
his own right to existence. To speak of heroin gra- 
tuitously is useless if one doesn't begin to organise 
the proletarian strength to destroy the present state 
of affairs at the same time. The proletarian revolu- 
tion, the surpassing of the existing social order, is 
not a project to be defined in abstract, but begins 
in practice with the destruction of capitalist society. 
All those who support the liberalisation of the 
heroin market without posing the problem of 
how to change the reality of proletarian life in 
the capitalist metropoli, are stupid opportunists. 
The armed strength of the proletariat must aim to 
impose itself as a concrete element capable of self- 
determining social reality in its complexity. 

Build proletarian unity in the struggle, establish 
and develop the political legitimacy of the revolu- 
tionaries among the proletariat, extend the space 
for building the real power of the proletariat armed. 
The armed strength of the proletariat in struggle is 
the only practical instrument of liberation from capi- 
116 



talist dominion. 

Heroin pushing, the exploitation of prostitution, 
the fencing of small thefts, are activities which cor- 
respond only to the law of capitalist accumulation. 
Communists are not against illegal activity that dam- 
ages the bourgeois strata: they are against all those 
vile activities of proletarian exploitation. It is right to 
rob banks, to ransom the bourgeois strata, but enough 
opportunism! Whoever gets rich through the injury 
of other proletarians will be considered a vile traitor! 

Vile is the pusher who earns his living through 
the deaths of others. Vile is the pimp who uses wom- 
en’s bodies as an instrument for his own profit. Vile 
is the fence who exploits the sweat labour of young 
proletarians when they are constrained to steal a ste- 
reo or spare tyres. All those, especially at a big lev- 
el, are friends of the police and the carabinieri and 
enemies of the proletariat. They buy the freedom to 
continue their vile activities in exchange for tip-offs 
and prison for other proletarians. The carabinieri use 
them as informers and they use the carabinieri to get 
rid of those who are in their way. So the operations 
of the drug squad against the pushers are in the end 
nothing other than operations controlling the mar- 
ket to the benefit of those who really centralise the 
heroin commerce. 

Whoever breaks proletarian unity, exploits, and 
robs from the proletariat themselves, must be con- 
heroin pushers 



sidered vile enemy and traitor: no solidarity in their 
divisions for subversive work among all the proletar- 
ians, for the destruction of capitalist society. 

Expel the enemies of the proletariat, the spies and 
traitors, whether they be heroin pushers or trade union 
bosses, to build the unity of the proletariat in struggle. 

Heroin is an instrument of social control that suits 
power. Alongside the pushers, and the forces of repres- 
sion there exists another hierarchy of control over the 
proletariat: the medico-psychiatric one. The sanitary 
decentralisation, the opening of centres for hygiene 
and mental health in every area, are the new instru- 
ments which capital is using to keep the contradictions 
of the capitalist metropolis under control, to render 
stupid and to drug the forces of the proletarian revolu- 
tion. Whoever goes beyond the rule of State, ofWork, 
of Family, is “mad,” can be labelled as deviant from 
childhood. As such, capital assigns his ghetto; will give 
him more heroin free, will stuff him with psychotropic 
drugs from the beginning, so that he doesn’t disturb 
the regular functioning of the social order. 

Doctors and psychiatrists who administer such 
rubbish, especially to young people and women, are 
mad criminals, labelling antagonism and proletarian re- 
bellion as “social deviance.” Neurotic and psychopathic 
subjects only because they cannot support the disgust 
of capitalist society. What does a psychiatrist who has 
been able to study without lifting a finger until he gets 
118 



his degree know of proletarian life in the ghettos? 

What we are fighting for is the fundamental right 
to self-determination of the proletariat. It must be 
the proletariat themselves to decide how, where and 
why they want to live. The psychiatrists, the crimi- 
nologists, the priests, the trade union bosses, in their 
positions as social controllers of the proletariat are 
enemies, and as such should be struck down. 

Attack the forces of repression, carabinieri, and 
police. Expel and strike their friends, the traitors, the 
informers, the spies, from the factories, from the pro- 
letarian areas. 

Attack the hierarchy of medico-psychiatric con- 
trol. 

Break up the internal hierarchy of control with- 
in the proletariat, the pushers and the shit fences. 
Build the power of the armed proletariat. 

Nov. 78 


Attacks Against the Police 

1976 February 

9 Rome: NAP claim an action injuring sergeant of 
the anti-terrorist brigade responsible for the killing 
of Anna Maria Mantini. 

March 

2 Genoa, Naples, Milan, Rlw, Pisa, Florence: The NAP 
and the Red Brigades combined claim six bomb at- 
tacks against carabinieri barracks during the night, 
attacks against the police 



1 6 Bologna: Two bomb attacks against carabinieri bar- 
racks. 

May 

10 Genoa: The Red Brigades set fire to a car used by 
a carabinieri captain. 

September 

/ Biella: Police chief shot dead by the Red Brigades. 

9 Turin: Molotovs and machine gun fire against cara- 
binieri barracks Nazcleo armato comunista. 

October 

25 Bologna: A Fiat 500 explodes outside a carabinieri 
command post. Nucleo armato Bruno Valli. 

December 

6 Rome: A NAP commando tries to kill head of the 
Italian SDS (secret services), Alfonso Noce, who was 
also responsible for coordinating the police action re- 
sulting in the killing of comrade Anna Maria Mantini. 
Anna Maria, NAP militant, was shot dead by police 
on opening the door of her flat. 

15 Milan: At 5.30 am three members of the SDS 
break into the apartment of Walter Alesia, aged 20, 
suspected of belonging to the Red Brigades. Alesia 
tries to escape, and in the shootout that follows, a 
police superintendent and a sergeant are killed. Alesia 
is wounded, then shot at point blank range. 

1977 February 

2 / : Two comrades are signaled to stop by a road patrol. 
120 



One makes a run for it, and returning fire, kills one 
policeman and wounds another. 

March 

2 Florence: An explosive device is thrown against the 
carabinieri barracks. 

12 Turin: Sergeant of the political police killed by a 
commando of Brigate Combattente. 

/ 9 Bari, Lucca: Carabinieri barracks attacked by bombs 
in both towns. 

22 Rome: Maria PiaVianale of the NAP is recognised 
by a policeman on a bus. He is shot while trying to 
capture her and her companion. In the chase that fol- 
lows, an armed park attendant who wanted to be a 
hero was mistaken by police for another NAP mem- 
ber and shot dead. 

April 

l Turin, Milan, Florence: Bombs against carabinieri bar- 
racks in these cities, claimed by Prima Linea. 

14 Perugia: Unita Comuniste Combattenti claim an 
explosion against the police haedquarters of the town. 
30 Florence: Powerful explosion at PS barracks. Prima 
Linea. 

30 Genoa: A pressure cooker containing TNT is left 
in front of the car park for carabinieri squad cars, but 
doesn’t explode. 

May 

15 Genoa: Incendiary bottles against police office. 

19 Cantu: Carabinieri barracks bombed. 

attacks againstthe police 



June 

30 Catania: Pistol shots against the carabinieri bar- 
racks, claimed by the NAP. 

30 Bologna: Bomb explodes at entrance to police office. 

July 

6 Leghorn: Bomb at the carabinieri barracks in rela- 
tion to the execution of comrade Franco Lo Muscio 
in Rome. Gruppo Combattend Comunisti. 

8 Rome: Combattend Comunisti claim an attempt to 
kill a policeman newly acquitted of killing comrade 
Mario Salvi.This attempt was in a restaurant where he 
was celebrating the outcome of his trial. The comrades 
missed their target, killing one of his guests instead. 
December 

18 Naples: A bomb explodes in front of the police 
station of Monte Calvario. Four comrades of Prima 
Linea are arrested shortly afterwards, accused of pre- 
paring a similar attack. 

20 Turin: Red Brigades attack barracks with guns and 
explode bomb at gates. 

21 Turin: Similar to the previous night, Prima Linea 
bomb another carabinieri barracks. 

3 1 Nnoro: Police vice-superintendent and an inspec- 
tor are attacked when leaving the prison after giving 
their New Year greetings to the warders. The com- 
rades of a Nuclei Armati Combattend per il Comu- 
nismo cell greet them on behalf of the prisoners with 
a shower of bullets. 


122 



1978 January 

3 Padova: Three carabinieri barracks bombed during 
the night by Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu- 
nismo in protest against heavy sentences meted out 
to two comrades. 

8 Nuoro: Car of flying squad inspector set alight. 

18 Novara: A cell of the Formazione Combattenti 
Comuniste shoot at carabinieri on guard duty near a 
special prison. 

26 Milan: Nuclei Armati Comunisti claim an explo- 
sion destroying half the facade of the police barracks. 
29 Rome: Bomb against carabinieri barracks. 

February 

Nuoro: Incendiary bomb against CC barracks at Ol- 
liena. 

1 7 Florence: Two cars belonging to the judicial police 
burnt. Squadre Proletari di Combattimento. 

24 Rome: Lotta Armata per il Comunismo destroy a 
bus belonging to the carabinieri and a police car. 

25 Milan: Squadre Operaie Armate destroy a police 
car and two motorcycles. 

March 

10 Turin: Red Brigade kill anti-terrorism inspector 
involved in arrests of many BR and NAP comrades. 
10 Milan: A bomb explodes in the courtyard of a police 
station, destroying a van and damaging other vehicles. 
10 Florence: Main door of the City Police station 
attacks against the police 



burned. 

13 Rome: Carabinieri barracks bombed during the 
night. 

13 Nuoro: A rudimentary bomb explodes against CC 
barracks. 

15 Florence: Squadre Proletarie di Combattimento ex- 
plode a bomb outside police station. 

19 Milan: A policeman is surrounded and disarmed 
during a demonstration. 

April 

7 Bologna: A Nucleo Comunista Armato attack a po- 
lice command post, taking away a pistol and other 
material. 

7 Rome: TNT against carabinieri barracks. Police ser- 
geant’s car burned. Red Brigades. 

10 Salerno: Bomb explodes in front of carabinieri bar- 
racks. 

12 Taranto: Explosion at carabinieri barracks. Claimed 
by a Gruppo Combattente. 

1 4 Padova: Cars of two prosecution witnesses in the 
trial of the ‘autonomists’, and the car of DIGOS chief, 
are burned by Comunisti Organizzati and Organiz- 
zazione Operaia per ll Comunismo. 

17 Trieste: Molotovs against the police headquarters, 
claimed by Nuclei Proletari Organizzati. 

19 Rome: The Red Brigades attack carabinieri bar- 
racks with hand grenades and machine guns. The 
barracks lodge the infamous General Dalla Chiesa, 
124 



responsible for the superprisons and the blitz opera- 
tions against comrades all over Italy. 

2 7 Ostia: Police sergeant’s car burned. 

24 Venice: In a phone call to press agency ANSA, the 
killing of a carabinieri officer and a friend of his in an 
explosion is claimed by comrades. 

29 Bologna: Squadre Armate Proletarie carry out an 
attack against police office. 

May 

1 Rome .Today an armed proletarian formation has attacked 
the carabinieri barracks. This is undoubtedly the best way to 
celebrate this 1st of May struggle. Create, organise armed 
counter-power. Freedom for all communist prisoners. 

1 Caporizzuto Island: Explosion under the window ot 
local carabinieri barracks. 

2 Turin: New carabinieri barracks under construction 
is blown up. 

3 Turin: Two patrolling carabinieri order a car to stop. 
Two young men get out, immobilise and handcuff 
the two disconcerted police and relieve them ot their 
pistols. 

4 Milan: Squadre Armate Proletarie disarm two po- 
licemen and set fire to the squad car. 

7 7 Turin: Pistol shots and explosion at carabinieri bar- 
racks. 

75 Rome: Headquarters of city police bombed by 
Formazioni Proletari Armate. 

22 Milan: During the afternoon five security guards are 
attacks against the police 



disarmed in front of the banks where they are on duty. 

23 Rome: Incendiary attack against the firm Carahelli 
which produces equipment for the carabinieri. 

24 Cagliari: Prison warder’s car destroyed by flames. 

27 Milan: Incendiary bomb in city police car park 
claimed by Guardie Proletarie Territoriali. 

27 Rome: Police officer’s car burned. 

28 Quartu S. Elena: Three cars belonging to German 
soldiers at local army base burned. 

June 

2 Rome: Car belonging to PS inspector on duty at the 
Ministry for Home Affairs is firebombed. 

3 Bergamo: Squadre Armate Operaia attack police sta- 
tion, immobilise and disarm those present and destroy 
premises by fire. 

3 Rome: Azione Rivoluzionaria claim attack against 
carabinieri barracks. 

9 Bologna: A Gruppo Comunista del Movimento 
claim an explosion at the offices of private police La 
Patria. 

15 Saronno: Explosive charge damages local carabin- 
ieri station. 

21 Uzulei: Pistol shots against home of local carabin- 
ieri captain, is brought to justice with twelve pistol 
shots while in a bus on his way to ‘work’. 

21 Turin: Red Brigades attack police station with mo- 
lotovs and pistol shots. 

22 Laveno: Gruppo Contropotere Territoriale destroy 

126 



seven boats including a motorlaunch belonging to 
the carabinieri. 

26 Milan: Two pistol shots miss a private policeman 
on duty outside a bank. 

27 Avellino: Bomb explodes outside army barracks. 

28 Florence: Reparti Comunisti Combattenti break 
into a police station, handcuff the two policemen 
present and take away money and pistols. 

July 

/ Rome: Dynamite attack at police headquarters. 

10 Caglari: A German army officer based at Decimo- 
mannu finds his car burnt. 

12 Padova: Organizzazione Operaia per il Comu- 
nismo and Proletari Armati per il Comunismo claim 
the bomb attacks during the night against carabinieri 
and police barracks, also against the prison and prison 
warders. 

15 Rome: Prima Linea assail a police station, chain up 
and disarm the policemen present. 

26 Milan: Squadre Armate give police an early morn- 
ing call with a bomb. 

27 Monza: TNT attack at carabinieri barracks under 
construction. 

28 Bologna: Attack against police headquarters 
claimed by Squadro Armate Proleltarie. 

August 

2 Bologna: Three comrades of Squadre Armate Pro- 
letarie break into a police station and disarm three 
attacks against the police 



policemen. 

9 Bergamo: Squadre Operaia Armate and Proletari Ar- 
mati per il Comunismo together claim attacks against 
three carabinieri barracks in the city. 

September 

7 Turin: Burning of a car belonging to a carabinieri 
colonel. 

26 Saronno: Bomb explodes in front of carabinieri 
barracks. 

26 Venice: Attack against a police station. 

29 Varese: Squadre Armate Combattente Comuniste 
claim an attack on carabinieri barracks. 

October 

4 Bologna: Pistol shots and nrolotovs against a police 
station. 

22 Milan: Proletari Arnrati per il Comunismo claim 
powerful explosion at a police station. 

24 Rome: A Red Brigades column ambush a police 
patrol, throw molotovs at the car, and wound a po- 
liceman with machine gun fire. 

29 Rome: Dynamite attack against a carabinieri bar- 
racks. 

31 Padova: Three cars burned belonging to head of 
the police flying squad and two other officers. 
November 

2 Turin: Squadre Armate Proletarie ambush a flying 
squad and try to lure them into a trap wired up with 
an incendiary device. One of the officers notices the 
128 



mesh and manages to avert the explosion. 

3 Oristano: Three Barbagia Rossa comrades break into 
an army barracks, disarm the guards, and take away 
four Garand guns, ammunition, and a hand grenade. 

3 Genoa: Red Brigades set fire to cars belonging to 
two prison warders well known for their beatings, 
and that of a carabinieri sergeant. 

5 Rome: Red Brigades claim fire that destroyed car of 
police officer. 

19 Oristano: The central radio of USAFE, an Ameri- 
can military corporation, is assailed and devastated 
following protests by local inhabitants concerning its 
installation. 

22 Rome: Two Red Brigades comrades surprise and 
disarm a policeman, then handcuff hint to the railings 
of his house. 

25 Nuoro: Dynamite charge destroys carabinieri car. 


Restructuring Repression 

1) Vigili Urbani (City Police), Guardia di Finanza 
(Customs Officers), Guardia Forestale (Forest Warders): 
Apart from the city police, who have been used in the 
service of public order since the first struggles of the 
Movement in 1977 (in Rome city police armed with 
machine guns fired into a demonstration), it was with 
the Moro kidnapping that this body increasingly took 
on the characteristics of special police. The customs 
restructuring repression 



officers were present at road blocks during the whole 
Moro operation, and in three Italian centres (Milan, 
Rome, Ancona) as many anti-guerrilla centres were 
instituted directly by the Customs. The Forestry on 
the other hand have been seen in the city squares 
since the Moro case, and have been put in charge 
of protecting NATO installations. The Minister Mar- 
cora has an armed escort of a dozen forestry warders 
trained at Castro Pretoria. 

2) Guardie Giurate (private police): These are the true 
watchdogs of the bourgeoisie. They have increased 
rapidly in recent times, they often associate in ‘service’ 
cooperative for banks and commercial activities, but 
it seems that their way of enjoying themselves is by 
giving chase to comrades doing flyposting or shoot- 
ing into demonstrations. In total, according to the lat- 
est census, there were 21,675 who work in five hun- 
dred twenty vigilance institutes; 3,042 who belong to 
proprietors’ associations, 56,359 employed by facto- 
ries or public bodies, and to this should also be added 
1 ,385 private investigators. In total this amounts to a 
true army, with 82,000 armed people, as big as the PS 
itself (source: Quale Difesa, No 4, year 1977). 

3) Carabinieri (CC) and Publica Sicurezza (PS):The 
carabinieri have always been the special body in the 
service of capital. Through Dalla Chiesa, they are in 
practice dependant on the President of the Council 
of State, Andreotti. One of their main tasks, apart from 
130 



carrying out actions characteristic of the secret ser- 
vices, is that of directly surveying the special prisons. 

There is a project to enroll another six thousand 
over the next three years. 

At present the carabinieri can count on about 
90,000 men spread over the national territory, with 
three divisions, each by geographical area, nine bri- 
gades detached in the major cities, and 24 legions in 
the most important provinces, and capillary control is 
accomplished by over 5,000 CC stations, even in the 
most isolated town. 


Anti-Institutional Movement, 
Revolutionary Violence, 

Armed Struggle — Some Reflections 

In order to dispel any ambiguity that might arise, I 
should like to make it clear that when I speak of 
armed struggle I am not speaking of artificial divi- 
sions imposed by bourgeois laws where the throw- 
ing of dozens of molotov cocktails runs the risk of 
not being considered a situation of armed struggle by 
some comrades. 

It is not the technical instrument we use which 
qualifies an action as violent or not, but rather its 
perspective in the confrontation with the class enemy. 
To employ armed struggle means essentially to be 
ready to respond to State violence and exploitation 
some reflections 



blow for blow at every level. It means passing from 
the purely defensive phase to one of attack in or- 
der to strike the enemy’s centres of organisation and 
repression. At the same time it must be capable of 
indicating to all the exploited where the true enemy 
is concealed, and that it is possible to strike it, it is 
not indistinguishable nor invulnerable. The latter is 
all the more important in an advanced phase of social 
democracy. Here the State is trying to draw the pro- 
letariat into its own logic to have them identify with 
the adversary through the mechanism of consensus 
and the co-management of exploitation, and at the 
same time use terror by exhibiting a strong appara- 
tus of criminalisation and repression. This situation 
can be seen today not only in the German Federal 
Republic, but also in Italy and all the other areas of 
advanced capitalism. 

Different methods and choices can obviously ex- 
ist within the revolutionary struggle, not all of which 
can be shared from an anarchist viewpoint, but I shall 
speak of this later. 

I also hope to avoid the ambiguity of certain 
positions which, after maintaining that they do not 
object to taking up the question of armed strug- 
gle in itself, confuse the issue with such statements 
as: “the present situation (...) does not impose the 
need for clandestine armed struggle which inevita- 
bly ends up demanding all the energies of the mili- 
132 



tants involved.” (Rivista Anarchica, March, 1977, p. 12) 
Above all I should like to point out once again how 
the whole question becomes abstract through such 
reasoning. Armed struggle comes to be seen as some- 
thing cut off from the rest of revolutionary activity, as 
a separate, purely “technical” and military phase which 
would steal time and energy from... one doesn’t know 
the rest. Besides, it seems to me that such arguments 
distort the problem by qualifying armed struggle with 
the adjective “clandestine” in a way that seems inevi- 
table, negative and degenerating. Given the fact that 
armed struggle is always in itself illegal, it does not 
seem to me that clandestinity can be made to coin- 
cide exclusively with one’s own choice, but rather that 
it is an eventuality to be borne in mind and does not 
fatally imply the creation of a vanguard/mass relation- 
ship of the Leninist kind. On the other hand, to come 
back to the present situation who can say that the 
comrades who carry out a certain type of action (for 
example the ambush in Pisa on the doctor responsi- 
ble for the assassination of comrade Serantini), which 
can certainly be defined as clandestine, are themselves 
“clandestine” and on the contrary are not carrying out 
a normal open practice of militancy? 

Why violence? 

There seems to be reasonable agreement among the 
great majority of comrades concerning some funda- 
mental problems: that violence is not the spontaneous 
some reflections 



expression of our own free will, but it is the scientifi- 
cally organised violence of oppression and exploita- 
tion implemented by the State which constrains us 
as revolutionaries to reply with an opposing, libera- 
tory violence if we do not want to bow down to the 
beating of our employers. Ours is always therefore a 
defensive violence, which does not mean that it limits 
itself to warding off the enemy’s blows. 

If what I have just said is true, it seems clear to me 
that in reality the problem of when armed response 
is justifiable or inevitable does not exist. We would 
be short-sighted or opportunistic if we could not 
see beyond the more or less democratic and permis- 
sive veneer with which power covers its homicidal 
essence. Whatever form it takes, the exploitation of 
man by man always merits a reply in the perspective 
of its violent destruction. It is not a question of decid- 
ing who “fired first” in order to know whether our 
defence is “legitimate” or not: for centuries the State 
has “fired first”, and our deaths do not only come 
about in the streets under the bullets of the police, 
but also in the factories, the prisons, asylums, ghet- 
tos, shanty towns, the clandestine abortion clinics, and 
the mines all over the world. If it were a question of a 
moral problem there would not be the need for even 
a minute’s discussion in the face of the hundreds of 
comrades, of exploited, assassinated daily and whose 
blood cries vengeance to our conscience. 

134 



But the problem is not only a moral one. Our 
rage, our revolutionary will, must always be accom- 
panied by lucid reasoning which allows us to conduct 
the struggle in the most consistent and effective way 
possible. This is not to say that offering oneself to be 
slaughtered on the alter of the martyr renders service 
to the revolutionary cause. The revolutionary act, we 
all know, is a collective act that presupposes a high lev- 
el of generalisation in the consciousness and the will 
for radical change in social relationships in a commu- 
nist direction. And it is here that most criticisms raised 
by comrades against the practice of armed struggle 
are aimed today. They say: we are not living in a pre- 
insurrectional situation; the masses are controlled by 
the reformists and certain actions are not understood. 

To this objection one could reply that the revo- 
lutionary movement should not always limit itself 
to carrying out the “popular will” which often risks 
transforming itself into something intangible or of 
disputable interpretation. Alongside the “cultural” 
work of propaganda and the diffusion of the revolu- 
r ionary perspective, the anti-State movement should 
also know how to put their affirmations into practice, 
especially in a situation where the ideological hege- 
mony of the reformist forces has lulled the conscious- 
ness and will of popular struggle or where they have 
been suffocated by State repression. Ideological dis- 
sertations and theoretical propaganda are not enough 
some reflections 



to shift the power relations that really exist. They must 
express themselves in actions where increasingly wid- 
er strata in the class of oppressed can recognise their 
own real needs. 

This perspective might, at the limit, be identi- 
fied with the so-called exemplary deed which cer- 
tainly requires careful reflection on the relationship 
between active minority and social situation, and on 
the choice of objective. But this, it seems to me, can- 
not be reduced to referring to a “glorious” historical 
past that we want to contribute to. 

In the face of the present situation, the argument 
of the exemplary deed seems to me to be limiting 
and inadequate. It seems to me that we find ourselves 
before something qualitatively different. Today certain 
actions are carried out by more or less specialised and 
appropriately organised minorities, but they are the 
expression of a movement which cannot be simply 
discarded as minoritarian on the basis of mere math- 
ematical calculation. In saying this we are not only 
referring to situations such as those in Bologna and 
Rome on March 1 1 and 12, where actions of armed 
certain “clandestine” actions operated and claimed by 
organisations which have made a declared choice of 
armed struggle, such as the Red Brigades, the NAP or 
the myriad of new names which appear day after day. 
The anti-institutional movement and violence 
In the present situation it is no longer possible to say 
136 



that actions such as armed clashes with the police, at- 
tacks on the centres of exploitation or the physical 
persons of some of the better known persecutors ot 
revolutionary militants, are only the will and fruit of 
the painstaking efforts of a handful ot theoreticians, the 
professionals of clandestinity, separate from the mass. 

Today, when the Montedison electronics factory, 
or the Luisa Spagnoli shops, or the doctor who ap- 
proved the assassination of Serantini are struck, this 
only adds to the demands and levels of conscious- 
ness of a movement which is something more than a 
simple conglomeration of groups, collectives, or tiny 
parties. It is a movement which includes large sec- 
tors of those who have been pushed to the margins 
of society, “non-guaranteed” students, women, those 
in insecure jobs, and less numerous but no less im- 
portant, sectors of industrial workers, service workers 
and technicians, etc. A movement which has singled 
out, perhaps instinctively, perhaps not clear in its 
complexity, but certainly with precision, the enemy 
present not only in the repressive apparatus of the 
State and the governors most in evidence, but also in 
the new reformist bosses of the trades unions. 

The line of refusal and opposition to capitalism and 
the reformist lie is becoming concrete through certain 
actions that are the patrimony of the movement. This is 
emerging from struggles that, although not carried out 
by the majority, certainly belong to the mass, 
some reflections 



Accustomed for years to having to count on a 
practice of impotence in a movement which has 
been trying to go beyond the level of “opinion”; ac- 
customed to dealing with problems typical of a con- 
scious minority more or less isolated from the real 
movement, many of us find ourselves uncomfortable 
in this situation. This explains the obvious difficulty 
in centering on real problems and the tendency to 
get lost in quite marginal research which has already 
been surpassed by the real level of the struggle. 

For example, the difficulty which appears through 
the repetition of the obvious but useless ideological 
“distinction” based on the classic argument: the Red 
Brigades are Marxist-Leninist and we are anarchists, 
therefore there exist insurmountable differences be- 
tween us. This question could even get to the heart of 
the problem if it were not closed within the abstract 
contestation of the two tendencies seen as being static 
and dogmatic, instead of analysing the concrete prob- 
lem of translating these theoretical choices into practice. 

And here we could consider the problem of how 
the Marxist-Leninist conception (but perhaps more 
Castroist than Leninist) of the armed party translates 
itself into a practice of professionals of clandestin- 
ity chosen in advance, which is the major criticism I 
should make of the Red Brigades. 

The decision that certain comrades should con- 
stitute the armed wing of the class recreates a situa- 
138 



tion of separation which can become the main cause 
of errors in evaluation made by those comrades who, 
closed within the logic of the specialized minority, 
often find it hard to relate their own actions to the 
political level and the needs of the movement. It is 
one thing for a workers’ nucleus to decide upon the 
punishment of a foreman, a fascist or the sabotage of a 
plant, and entrust the execution of this to a restricted 
number of comrades (for obvious reasons of security, 
efficiency, etc.). It is another, completely different, for 
a restricted number of comrades absent from the situ- 
ation and with little or no links with it, to decide to 
carry out the same action. 

Besides, within the logic of the latter, such armed 
groups are not formed on the basis of a natural pro- 
cess of “distillation” where the more politically ma- 
ture and those with a greater capacity for types of 
actions become involved in the more advanced strug- 
gles. Instead this comes to be based on quite personal 
idealistic choice, a method that does not seem to me 
to be right, even within a vanguardist logic, which, 
moreover, I do not share. 

The right road is not therefore, in my opinion, 
the armed party of military specialists, but should be 
instead that of widening the area of revolutionary 
struggle against the State. This is so, not because it has 
been decided by a handful of intellectuals, but because 
the anti-institutional movement that has developed 
some reflections 



cannot withdraw or procrastinate on positions already 
conquered to wait for better times, but must try to go 
ahead. Experience shows that the fascistic social dem- 
ocratic State is not disposed to concede the minimum 
of space that is not snatched from it by force. 

Why the movement is going forward 
At this point the problem to be faced is not so much 
that of rendering the actions of armed struggle “com- 
prehensible” to the movement so much as that of the 
relationship between the revolutionary movement 
which is beginning to emerge all over the country 
(and which precisely because it is revolutionary con- 
tains contradictions that need to be faced without 
obstruction), and the rest of the proletarian move- 
ment where the reformists still manage to exercise 
their own hegemony. It is mainly a question of the 
workers who have been guaranteed relative well be- 
ing from the struggles of ’68, etc., paid for by their 
integration into the logic of work, exploitation and 
the State, and who are passing through a critical time. 

The capitalist crisis at world level has on the one 
hand eliminated the system’s margins of recuperation, 
preventing the unions from being able to play the 
role of containing and reabsorbing struggles as they 
were called to do in ’68/’69.At that time revolution- 
ary tendencies manifested themselves in a period that 
was still one of expansion, where capital still had areas 
in which to negotiate. Today the system has very little 
140 



to concede to wage earners in exchange for their im- 
plication in the process of fascisization of society. 

Cracks have opened in the reformist-controlled 
worker’s movement. A certain disorientation has 
spread, a generalized discontent, hut which is find- 
ing it hard to transform itself into the will for social 
change, or to identify the enemy clearly. A precarious 
equilibrium has been established between workers 
and their managers, which an attempt must be made 
to shatter. We know that the marginalised and the 
“guaranteed” have in reality a common enemy, but the 
latter lack an awareness of whom those enemies are. 

The movement must go forward to shatter the 
reformist equilibrium. It must demonstrate with its 
struggles that there exists a pole of anti-capitalist and 
anti-State aggregation, which can become a point of 
reference even for those who are guaranteed-nothing 
but exploitation. 

Anarchismo 

Towards the Generalisation of 
Armed Struggle 

The general conditions of life in this country are par- 
ticularly desperate. A tightly knit campaign of collabo- 
ration with the governmental forces is allowing the 
media to continue to present a tolerable picture. Any 
sign of insufferance in the mass is immediately cir- 
cumscribed with the greatest attention. The refusal of 
toward the generalisation... 



workers in Turin to strike in answer to the killing of 
a journalist unleashed a sea of interpretations and in- 
quests. Famous sociologists met to provide the analyses 
that the State in its most brutally coercive forms (po- 
lice, judiciary, prisons) needs. At the same time they 
are fabricating such palliatives as the law on unem- 
ployment, the rent laws, the tax reforms — all ludicrous 
attempts to stop an avalanche with a piece of paper. 

Unemployment is on the increase, private invest- 
ment is diminishing (the capitalists prefer to put their 
money safely abroad), the work situation must be rem- 
edied with the least damage to the State, by having re- 
course to the public deficit. This upsets our situation at 
the level of international economic credibility, which 
we are obliged to substitute with political credibility. 
In other words, if we want German and American 
money we must show them our disposition to repress 
any form of revolutionary dissent that might develop 
in our country. We must demonstrate that these forms 
will no longer exist once things have been organised 
definitively, with the farthings of the imperialist giants 
and the consent of the Communist Party. 

This party’s reactionary guarantee is necessary for 
various reasons. First of all, its ideological past, the 
capacity to confuse the exploited, the progressive ve- 
neer, are none other than a simple attempt at a “calm” 
passage to a social democratic capitalism with wide 
State participation. 

142 



This guarantee would have been impossible in 
a different international perspective, with the USSR 
in more real contrast with the interests of the Unit- 
ed States. An Italian or European road to socialism 
is absurd. The Italian Communist Party are available 
for discussion with all the reactionary forces only be- 
cause the USSR have been so disposed for some time. 

All this should help us to understand how the 
identification of the class front can no longer pass 
through ideological factors, but must come about 
through the productive situation. The workers are 
open to attacking the forces of exploitation at the 
place of exploitation as soon as the ideological cover- 
ings which have been a barrier to their understand- 
ing for so long have broken down. This disposition 
becomes even clearer and more acute in a situation 
accentuated by lack of work. In the last analysis the 
unemployed workers are even more exploited and 
miserable than the employed workers. 

The disposition to struggle among the exploited 
is not only proportionate to exploitation, but also 
to the effectiveness of ideological instruments. The 
more these seem clear and transparent, the more they 
become great crusades against nothing, and exploi- 
tation remains intact. The weaker they are, the less 
capable they are of “guiding” the masses, who find 
the road of the struggle, of class cohesion and the 
objectives of the conflict themselves, 
toward the generalisation... 



The level of conflict 

This can be defined as the whole of the conditions 
that characterise the class conflict. To know these 
conditions is very important, because one is often 
carried, for different reasons, to consider some more 
important than others, with the obvious conclusion 
that those who do not accept the same ones come to 
be defined counter-revolutionary. 

It is not possible to fix a scale of merit concerning 
the conditions that determine the level of the strug- 
gle. It would in fact be out of place to overestimate 
economic conditions, underestimating, for example, 
ideological conditions which, precisely because they 
are breaking down, produce certain consequences 
and not others. 

Heightening the level of conflict 
Every historical moment has its own level of conflict. 
In a certain sense, history is history in that it manages 
to trace these levels and give accounts of the condi- 
tions which caused them. 

Changes in the level of conflict are normal events 
which often come in “waves” which move around an 
axis which seems to remain stable even during con- 
tinual change. This something is the ideological struc- 
ture of power or, if we prefer, ideological structure 
itself, in that revolution does not have an ideological 
144 



structure until it takes the concrete form of counter- 
revolution. 

To move the conflict to the fictitious level of ide- 
ology often means to lose the concrete ground of the 
struggle, the only ground on which any theoretical 
consideration is valid. 

There being no doubt that revolutionaries have 
every interest in raising the level of consciousness, 
it remains equally beyond doubt that there can be 
no interest in reaching ideological perfection, as this 
would, sooner or later, become functional only to the 
re-establishment of power. In the specific case of the 
ideology of violence that is being discussed in Italy 
today, this becomes functional to the State, consent- 
ing the oscillations which allow the latter to become 
paternalistically open to discussion (see the Bologna 
meeting surrounded by six thousand policemen) one 
minute, then rigidly adopting strong means such as 
special prisons, police intimidation, special laws and 
tribunals the next. 

It is not discussions about violence that raise the 
level of conflict, nor the debate on which type of vio- 
lence is acceptable and which should be refused that 
pushes the exploited towards their liberation. No one 
can teach anything to those who have been suffering 
every kind of repression for centuries, on this argu- 
ment. The ideological curtain falls, and the stage re- 
mains in its stark reality, that of the class struggle, with 
towardthe generalisation... 



on the one hand the exploited and on the other the 
servants of the exploiters walking to their bosses’ heels. 

When we speak of the need for violence we are 
certainly not doing it to convince the exploited. They 
know this very well themselves, and put it into effect 
any time they have a chance to do so, with all the 
means at their disposition. We speak of the need for 
violence in order to point to the enemy with greater 
clarity, an enemy that tries to to conceal itself in even 
in the guise of brother or comrade. 

The discussion on violence is also an element of 
great importance in order to recognise all those who, 
at the time of words, were so clever at splitting hairs, 
proposing models of the “right kind of violence” to 
the masses, based on their ideological judgments. 
When the level of the conflict heightens for all the 
reasons we have mentioned, all such discourses be- 
come both useless and determining. They are useless 
because the real confrontation renders them out of 
date and senseless; determining because they sweep 
away the last of the illusions and denounce barren 
attempts to recuperate. 

As anarchists we are for the social revolution, that 
is we are for the immediate and definitive overthrow 
of the State. We are for revolutionary logic, which is 
above all a destructive logic. 

We are for the destruction of the State, which 
means we are for the physical (not verbal) destruction 
146 



of the institutions and people who represent and bring 
about the State. We are against the police, the judg- 
es, the bureaucrats, the trade union leaders, and the 
bosses. Not only are we against police control, bour- 
geois justice, techno-bureaucracy, trade unionism and 
capitalism; we are concretely against the people who 
bring about these ideological forms in everyday life, 
turning them into instruments of repression. And this 
being against must translate itself into precise actions 
of attack. If we are against the police, we must not let 
ourselves be drawn into the ideological trap of those 
who, in the name of a misunderstood pluralism or a 
retrograde enlightenment, give space and feasibility to 
the enemy, affirming that everyone has the right to 
express him or herself, therefore also the police — who 
when they do express themselves do so with batons. If 
we are against all judges and bureaucrats, all bosses and 
the trade unions in their service, we must not wait for 
someone to tell us: “this boss committed a particular 
wrong or this trade union leader is guilty of such and 
such, this judge is particularly reactionary”. No! All 
of them, without ideological distinction, all the police, 
all magistrates, all bureaucrats and all the trades union 
leaders, all the bosses and all those in their service are 
guilty and should be attacked with any possible means, 
at any moment, at whatever the cost. 

The moral justification is to be found in the fact 
of exploitation itself. Anyone who has been subject- 
toward the generalisation... 



ed to centuries of the monstrous pressure of work, 
anyone who has participated in building the world 
knowing that he or she would never be able to en- 
joy any of it, does not need to wait for a particular 
sign of wickedness from the other side. He or she is 
authorised to attack, to strike, and to kill, just as the 
bosses and their servants attack, strike and kill at any 
time they like. 

The problem of strategy 

The fact that it is possible to discuss the methods and 
the best forms in which to conduct this attack, is a 
problem that has nothing to do with the moral foun- 
dation that justifies the attack itself. 

Any such discussion must therefore become a dis- 
cussion on strategy, on the evaluation of means and the 
achieving of ends. It cannot be said for example that 
“anarchists do not do certain things because...”. This 
argument does not make sense. What anarchists do as 
such must be evaluated in reality, not in the abstraction 
of theory, otherwise anarchism would not make sense, 
and become a mystifying ideology like any other. 

Certainly strategic choices are not separate from 
the fundamental anarchist analysis, which when it is 
placed in reality becomes an indispensable part of 
revolutionary intervention. But if this same analysis 
were to be cut off from the reality of the struggle and 
become the product of some illuminated mind and 
148 



transformed into a militants’ catechism, it would sim- 
ply enter the field of ideology and become functional 
to the power it was pretending to attack. 

That is why, when anarchists criticise and attack 
the claimed revolutionary role of the armed military 
parties such as the Red Brigades, the NAP or other 
more recent formations, they do it starting from an 
anarchist analysis, but one which bears in mind the 
real conditions of the class conflict today in Italy. It is 
not an anarchist analysis planted in the vague realms of 
ideology, that feels obliged to give judgment on mat- 
ters which it not only sees as estranged from it, but also 
as hostile. It is not enough to be anarchists to say what 
is right concerning the struggle that is in the course 
of development. It is necessary to be within a concrete 
perspective to be available for the revolutionary con- 
frontation, to have evaluated well what all that means 
for each one of us at a personal level, and at a global 
level for the whole of the anarchist movement. 

We have often published the documents of the 
armed struggle organisations that are operating in our 
country. Sometimes, on these very pages, we have also 
traced the essential lines of a critique of the closed 
military party. But we have not, when these comrades 
were persecuted and chased away, claimed to measure 
the distance separating them from us. This is because 
the distance, without doubt present and significant, 
could only have been put down on paper, therefore 
towardthe generalisation... 



resulted in a banal ideological question. This has led to 
some misunderstanding by other comrades concern- 
ing our position, fuelling an artificial argument that 
would have had no reason to exist had these comrades 
considered it more expedient to engage themselves 
in first person in underlining these differences which 
they only identified at an ideological level. 

Now however things have changed, and the time 
has come to raise our voices loud and strong, so that 
even the deaf can hear us and those who pretend 
to be deaf see themselves shown up in front of the 
serious comrades who really want to struggle for the 
liberation of all the exploited and for anarchy. 

The reason we have given space to the phenom- 
enon of armed struggle over the past few years and 
supported the need to defend these points however 
contradictory and dangerous they might be, was be- 
cause we felt the road undertaken was an important 
one. We felt that this road could — which in fact has 
happened — take another direction, that of mass armed 
struggle, of generalised illegal behaviour which could 
deny and finally eliminate the very conditions of the 
initial clandestine struggle based on the closed mili- 
tary party. To put ourselves against this behaviour from 
the very beginning, as so many have done, would have 
been a contribution to the State repression against 
them, and would have prevented any development in 
a libertarian direction, something we considered pos- 
150 



sible from the start. By this we do not mean a libertar- 
ian development in the closed military parties, but the 
development of armed struggle in general and of all 
the comrades who work in this direction. 

Disillusionment is pushing many people to a 
practice of generalised illegal behaviour. This be- 
haviour materialises either at the workplace, or in 
the field of unemployment and criminalisation. This 
phenomenon goes far beyond the strategic perspec- 
tives of any closed military party, no matter how big 
and effective it might be. The Red Brigades, the NAP, 
Prima Linea, and many other organisations, have 
nothing left to say apart from their own self criti- 
cism. Either they integrate their actions within the 
plan of generalised armed conflict, which is hap- 
pening slowly, or they will be destined to extinction. 
Our task is also this. Just as we contributed to check- 
ing the stupid and malevolant criticisms and to avoid- 
ing the global repressive tactic hoped for by the State, 
today, as anarchists we must continue to give our con- 
tribution to the clarification of this process of gen- 
eralised armed conflict, singling out, criticising and 
attacking any attempt — no matter where it comes 
from — to impose strategic and political models which 
the daily practice of struggle have declared out of date. 

Insurrection 

It is within the perspective of generalised mass armed 
toward the generalisation... 



struggle that the insurrection takes on a libertarian 
meaning, and marks the definitive critique of any 
‘closed’ attempt to organise the management of the 
class conflict. 

Generalised armed conflict is the natural out- 
come of a situation that is getting worse every day. 
The exploited are beginning to point out this ne- 
cessity in a series of anti-institutional actions that 
are continually spreading. The isolated acts of pun- 
ishment carried out by minority clandestine groups 
against some of those responsible for exploitation are 
coming to be accepted with satisfaction and approved 
by the mass. Attempts by the unions to organise pro- 
test strikes against such actions have had, at the FIAT 
for example, a very small number of participants. 

There is no doubt that today the movement of 
the exploited, in its various forms and all its con- 
tradictions, is capable of attacking capital and the 
State structures that defend it. There is no doubt that 
this attack is actually happening. The only thing that 
seems strange to us is that at this point in the struggle, 
steps backward are being made, shown in the persis- 
tence in using instruments (such as the armed party) 
that although they may have been effective in some 
way yesterday, are now anachronistic and threaten to 
become inward looking. 

As anarchist revolutionaries we know very well 
that in this phase of class confrontation clandestine 

152 



forms of resistance are still necessary. We know just 
as well that at the same time this presents negative 
aspects, that is, they risk becoming authoritarian. 

It is our task to be careful in order to stop this in- 
volution, to fight so that the confrontation becomes 
generalised in its insurrectional form which guaran- 
tees it not only as anarchist strategy, but also as a lib- 
ertarian perspective. 

When speaking of insurrection in the past, many 
comrades immediately brought out historical ex- 
amples: the Matese gang, the Pontelungo conspiracy, 
and other such events, accusing us of “revolutionary 
romanticism” or of being “idealists”, or of being “ob- 
jectively dangerous”. To us this all seems ridiculous. 

Insurrection is the attempt made with revolu- 
tion in sight. As anarchists, insurrection remains our 
privileged element, but this insurrection must be 
generalised, at least to the level of the widest possible 
practice of illegal behaviour. This is what is actually 
happening. What should we be feeling sorry about? 
Maybe we should complain about the fact that the 
contradictions of capital and the revolutionary claims 
of the exploited are preventing us from carrying on 
our sweet dreams? 

Let us take heart. If hard times are ahead of us 
we know how we shall face them. It is precisely in 
these times that the sheep discard their wolves’ cloth- 
ing. The time has come to put the chatter aside, and 
toward the generalisation... 



to fight. Let us take courage and go ahead. And then, 
because as always the best form of defence is attack, 
let us begin by attacking first. There is no lack of ob- 
jectives. May the bosses and their servants feel how 
hard it can become to carry on their jobs as exploiters. 

Anarchismo 


On the Problem of Armed Struggle 

An important element that has emerged repeatedly in 
anarchists’ analyses of armed struggle has been the fol- 
lowing: as armed struggle is the culminating moment 
ot the revolution, before engaging in it we must be 
sure that the phase we are passing through is at least a 
pre-revolutionary one. In the case of the contrary we 
would end up being crushed by repression and every- 
thing else, and the political work that that the move- 
ment has always carried out, such as counter-informa- 
tion and propaganda, would be destroyed. 

We feel it is important to clarify this position, un- 
derlining a number of points: 

a) analyses are based on the personal positions of 
the comrades who work them out, and this could be 
otherwise; 

b) even if it does not appear officially, the posi- 
tions of the organisations these comrades belong to 
affect the analyses themselves; 

c) there is a logical error in stating that armed 


154 



struggle must await the pre-revolutionary phase, as it 
also plays a part in the creation of that phase; 

d) there can be no one single definition of what 
the pre-revolutionary phase is. 

...The first two points should be borne in mind 
in view of the fact that many of the analyses being 
put forward today are those of older comrades whose 
political awareness comes from another stage in the 
class struggle. Younger comrades, whose daily lives are 
often more anti-authoritarian than those of the ones 
writing the analyses, often refuse to do this kind of 
work, or find that they lack the instruments to do so 
due to the liberalisation of schooling. The analyses 
put forward by these comrades is therefore their ac- 
tions themselves, and their behaviour has put many 
organisational structures in crisis. 

It is no longer fashionable to speak in the name 
of an organisation, but this does not mean that analy- 
ses reflect the ideas of the individual comrade that 
wrote them. They can reflect the strategic positions 
of organisations that these comrades constantly re- 
fer to either in theory or in practice. The longer the 
organisation procrastinates, the further off the “pre- 
revolutionary phase” will be. 

We come to the third point: the statement that 
armed struggle necessitates a pre-revolutionary phase 
contains a logical contradiction. Implicit in this state- 
ment is an over-evaluation of the military-type or- 
onthe problem of armed struggle 



ganisation compared with other forms of armed in- 
tervention against repression. Given the level of the 
conflict at the present time, it is in the interests of 
repression to restrict the spreading of armed actions, 
and at the same time he able to point at a specific 
organisation as representing the phenomenon in its 
entirety. This can then be used at a spectacular level 
in order to justify repression. 

In substance there is no reason to accept this in- 
terpretation elaborated by the political police. The 
actions of the so-called historic armed organizations 
are only a minimal part of the phenomenon of armed 
struggle, even if they manage to be the most spec- 
tacular action. In reality this phenomenon consists 
of a vast arc of illegal and anti-authoritarian behav- 
iour which is threatening to spread uncontrollably. 
The State knows this very well, as do the political 
and pseudo-revolutionary (but substantially counter- 
revolutionary) groups that are trying to jump on the 
band-wagon. To reduce the problem of armed strug- 
gle in Italy today to what is being done by groups 
such as the Red Brigades, would be absurd. That 
would be to repeat, using all the weight of revolu- 
tionary analysis, the schemes of reasoning that are so 
useful to capitalism. It is this anti-authoritarian illegal 
behaviour that signals what is defined the pre-revolu- 
tionary phase rather than, as some maintain, that it is 
this phase that renders such behaviour rational. 

156 



Something should also be said concerning the 
problem that a single definition of the pre-revolution- 
ary phase is not possible. Some comrades imagine that 
it must always resemble the conditions of the storm- 
ing of the Winter Palace, and anything other than that 
must only spring from a worsening crisis in capital- 
ism’s management of the economy. Others think that 
first an imbalance must develop at international level, 
or there must be a change in interests in the areas into 
which the world is divided. These points are all valid, 
but taken individually they cannot put in doubt the 
fact that our revolutionary task is that of pushing the 
exploited towards rebellion and the struggle against 
the exploiters, not to daydream about the possibility 
of the victory of our organisations in the case of con- 
flict. Possibly it has not yet been understood where 
the revolutionary task of anarchists should lie. How 
is it that some still think in terms of the name, the 
organisation, whereby Azione Rivoluzionaria, by the 
mere fact of having put a beautiful phrase of Durruti 
at the beginning of their most significant document, 
should consider themselves to be the only possible al- 
ternative to the Red Brigades? Perhaps it has not been 
understood that the only alternative is that of gener- 
alised armed struggle pushed to an insurrectional level, 
something far more meaningful than the greatest feats 
of the historic organisations. 


on the problem of armed struggle 



Forward Comrades! 

Revolt is a fact that concerns individuals and organ- 
isations. It is not the revolution, but is what makes 
the revolution possible. Without the continual revolt 
of conscious individuals there will be nothing but 
the betraying revolution of the neo-bosses using the 
organs of the class struggle. And revolt is conscious- 
ness of oneself, one's own involvement, the sacrifices 
we must be capable of making, the hopes, the joys, 
the advances and the possible dangers. Revolt is what 
characterises the life of each one of us. 

It is in moments of great social tension, when 
the contradictions of the capitalist structure explode, 
that the consequences of the little compromises and 
weaknesses we ended up accepting in the period 
when nothing was happening emerge. It is opportun- 
ism that has forged its path among us, opportunism 
that finds cunning words to disguise itself, to smuggle 
its way in as a refined revolutionary tactic. 

Forward comrades! Let us begin to call on what 
is inside us, in our relationships with the comrades 
closest to us, in our relationship with the organisa- 
tions that we belong to. 

It is not so difficult. The enemy facing us is do- 
ing so with such harshness that he is not difficult to 
identify, and if we identify him we must strike, and if 
we strike we must be ready to pay the consequences 


158 



of our actions. These are the tasks awaiting us. 

May our discourses be action, and may other 
comrades learn to esteem us for what we do and not 
what we represent as a tradition, and may the State 
learn to fear anarchists once again, not as inheritors 
of Ravachol or Henry, Durruti or Makhno, but be- 
cause they are capable of giving life to organisations 
of attack, and are not just groups of social scientists 
who produce brilliant analyses on the problems of 
the moment. 

Today we have some possibilities in the front line 
of the revolutionary conflict. We have not made any 
serious mistakes in the recent past to put us in a bad 
light in the eyes of the exploited 

Perhaps this is because what we have done has 
been too insignificant to have left any room for seri- 
ous mistakes, but all the same we have not made any. 
At the present time we can still be a point of reference, 
a point of coagulation both for the exploited and 
for many militant revolutionaries who come from 
authoritarian organisations and have lived through 
the great trauma of the errors of these organizations. 
We will not repeat the mistakes we made in 1968. 
We do not accept confrontation on the abstract basis 
of endless theoretical discussions. We are measuring 
ourselves in the concrete field of action. 

We are not demonstrating the fear that usually 
leads us to close in on ourselves because with the 
forward comrades 



authoritarians, the Marxists, there is nothing that can 
be done. The past few months have shown the devel- 
opment of a strong anti-authoritarian consciousness 
in many groups of militants, as well as in some strata 
of the exploited, particularly those subjected to pro- 
cesses of criminalisation: we are not contributing to 
extinguishing this consciousness. 

Let us prepare for every possible relationship 
Confrontation on an abstract basis of endless theo- 
retical discussions. We are measuring ourselves in the 
concrete field of action. 

Let us prepare for every possible relationship. We 
are anarchists, and as such are for anti-authoritarian 
action. But we believe in the need to attack power 
right away, at all levels and with every possible means. 
Here we can measure ourselves and find a possible 
point of collaboration. 

Recent experiences which come from the level 
of social conflict in Italy today tell us that the au- 
thoritarian strategy is a losing one. These experiences 
have been points of reference not only for us, but also 
for many other comrades. This is not the time for 
theoretical debate; it is time to single out the objec- 
tives to be attacked amongst the great counter-revo- 
lutionary alliances. 

Anarchismo 


160 



It is not the technical instrument we use which 
qualifies an action as violent or not, but rather its 
perspective in the confrontation with the class en- 
emy. To employ armed struggle means essentially to 
be ready to respond to State violence and exploita- 
tion blow for blow at every level. It means passing 
from the purely defensive phase to one of attack in 
order to strike the enemy’s centres of organisation 
and repression. At the same time it must be capable 
of indicating to all the exploited where the true 
enemy is concealed, and that it is possible to strike 
it, it is not indistinguishable nor invulnerable. 

from “Anti-Institutional Movement, 
Revolutionary Violence, 
Armed Struggle — Some Reflections" 


$6 


ardent 

A